Doppler ultrasonography as a tool for ovarian management
J.H.M. Viana, E.K.N. Arashiro, L.G.B. Siqueira, A.M. Ghetti, V.S. Areas, C.R.B. Guimarães, M.P. Palhao, L.S.A. Camargo, C.A.C. Fernandes
Anim Reprod, vol.10, n3, p.215-222, 2013
Doppler ultrasonography allows the characterization and measurement of blood flow, and can be used to indirectly make inference regarding the functionality of different organs, including the ovaries. Several studies highlighted the importance of an adequate blood flow for follicle development and acquisition of ovulatory potential, and for progesterone secretion by the corpus luteum. Due to some particularities of the ovarian vascular anatomy, however, different strategies had to be developed to measure the blood flow detected by Doppler imaging. Some of these approaches were successful to characterize the patterns of blood flow throughout the estrous cycle, pregnancy, and early postpartum, but require post-acquisition image processing and do not allow real time decisions to be taken. The subjective evaluation of blood flow has been alternatively used in field conditions aiming to early detect non-pregnant animals, select embryo recipients, or predict artificial insemination and in vitro fertilization outcomes. In summary, color-Doppler imaging provides important information about the function of corpus luteum and follicles, supporting clinical diagnoses and management decisions. Nonetheless, the adoption of Doppler ultrasonography as a routine exam, instead of a limited use in an individual basis, requires further development of feasible blood flow evaluation procedures and the establishment of reference values.
blood flow, cattle, reproduction, vascular dynamics.