Sanitary requirements for bovine gametes and embryos in international trade
Anim Reprod, vol.10, n3, p.283-296, 2013
Development of artificial insemination (AI) together with embryo cryopreservation has led to international trade of cattle germplasm for more than 60 years. Although experimental data show that many animal pathogens can be associated with semen and embryos, risk of disease transmission can be substantially reduced or eliminated by applying sanitary protocols recommended by the International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS) and the World Organization of Animal Health (OIE). The basic principle to ensure such a high level of biosecurity for semen relies on the concept of pathogen-free semen collection center. In the case of embryos, practical guidelines have been published in the manual of IETS in order to provide risk management procedures ensuring the safety of herds using embryo transfer, and embryo washing procedures which are the most effective means of reducing the number of microorganisms associated with germplasm. Finally, the high degree of biosecurity measures under official approval ensures that the professionalism of embryo transfer (ET) teams and good AI industry practices together with the low risk of disease transmission using gametes and embryo based biotechnologies, encourages germplasm movement around the world.
biosecurity, embryo, sanitary protocols, semen