Animal Reproduction (AR)
Animal Reproduction (AR)

Altrenogest during early pregnancy modulates uterine glandular epithelium and endometrial growth factor expression at the time implantation in pigs

Bruno Bracco Donatelli Muro; Diego Feitosa Leal; Rafaella Fernandes Carnevale; Mariana Andrade Torres; Maitê Vidal Mendonça; Denis Hideki Nakasone; Cristian Hernando Garcia Martinez; Gisele Mouro Ravagnani; Matheus Saliba Monteiro; André Pegoraro Poor; Simone Maria Massami Kitamura Martins; Priscila Viau; Cláudio Alvarenga de Oliveira; Raquel Vasconcelos Guimarães de Castro; Brendon Willian Bessi; Fabiana Fernandes Bressan; Lidia Hildebrand Pulz; Ricardo Francisco Strefezzi; Glen William Almond; André Furugen Cesar de Andrade

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This study evaluated the effects of supplying altrenogest from day 6-12 of pregnancy on the endometrial glandular epithelium, corpora lutea (CL) morphology, and endometrial and CL gene expression. A total of 12 crossbred females (Landrace × Large White) were used. The females were assigned to 4 treatments according to a random design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, with two categories (sow or gilt) and two treatments (non-treated and treated with altrenogest). On day 6 of pregnancy, animals were allocated to one of the following groups: non-treated (NT, n = 6; 3 sows and 3 gilts), and (T, n = 6; 3 sows and 3 gilts) treated daily with 20 mg of altrenogest, from day 6-12 of pregnancy. All animals were euthanized on day 13 of pregnancy. All CLs were individually weighed, and their volume were determined. The endometrial glandular density (GD), mean glandular area (MGA), and vascular density (VD) were determined by histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses. Endometrium samples were collected and analyzed by qRT-PCR to evaluate the abundance of transcripts for VEGF and IGF-I. Females in the T group had higher MGA (P < 0.05) compared to the NT group. There was no effect of treatment on GD or VD for both experimental groups. Sows in the T group had augmented expression of IGF-I (P < 0.05). Progestagen had no detrimental effect on CL morphology. In conclusion, altrenogest improves the uterine environment during the peri-implantation period in pigs without compromising corpora lutea development.


corpus luteum, endometrium, gilts, IGF-I, progesterone


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