Animal Reproduction (AR)
Animal Reproduction (AR)

Assessment of dopperfluxometric indices of maternal-fetal structures in pregnant ewes

Victor José Correia Santos; Mariana Garcia Kako Rodriguez; Priscila Del Aguila da Silva; Renata Sitta Gomes Mariano; Augusto Ryonosuke Taira; Luciana Cristina Padilha-Nakaghi; Ricardo Andres Ramirez Uscategui; Marcus Antonio Rossi Feliciano; Maria Emilia Franco Oliveira; Paola Castro Moraes; Wilter Ricardo Russiano Vicente

Downloads: 0
Views: 40


The aim of this study was to evaluate the blood flow of the uterine artery, fetal aorta and umbilical artery in the physiological pregnancy of sheep by means of pulsed Doppler throughout the gestational period. Thirty Santa Inês ewes weighing between 45.4±4.3 kg and aged 2 to 5 years were selected. The evaluations were carried out weekly from the 3rd to the 21st gestational week. Peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV) and resistance index (RI) were obtained. Analysis of variance was performed, and the minimum significant comparison of means was obtained by the BH test with adjusted P<0.05. The results were expressed as mean ± standard error. For the fetal aorta, there was an increase in the EDV values and a decrease in the PSV and RI throughout pregnancy. For the uterine artery, PSV and EDV did not present significant variation, whereas the RI showed a reduction in the last week. Increased EDV values were found for the umbilical artery throughout pregnancy. For the PSV there was no significant difference, as the RI was reduced at the end of pregnancy. The results obtained are expected to contribute to a more complete understanding of the hemodynamic changes resulting from pregnancy.


ultrasonography, Doppler, sheep, pregnancy


Acharya G, Sitras V, Erkinaro T, Makikallio K, Kavasmaa T, Pakkila M, Huhta JC, Rasanen J. Experimental validation of uterine artery volume blood flow measurement by Doppler ultrasonography in pregnant sheep. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2007;29(4):401-6. PMid:17390334.

Adamson SL, Morrow RJ, Langille BL, Bull SB, Ritchie JWK. Site-dependent effects of increases in placental vascular resistance on the umbilical arterial velocity waveform in fetal sheep. Ultrasound Med Biol. 1990;16(1):19-27.

Beltrame RT, Covre C, Littig LB, Martins AB, Quirino CR, Junior AB, da Costa RLD. Transrectal Doppler sonography of uterine blood flow in ewes during pregnancy. Theriogenology. 2017;91:55-61. PMid:28215686.

Benjamini Y, Hochberg Y. Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. J Roy Stat Soc B. 1995;57:289-300.

Blanco PG, Arias DO, Gobello C. Doppler ultrasound in canine pregnancy. J Ultrasound Med. 2008;27(12):1745-50. PMid:19023000.

Bragança GM, Balaro MFA, Fonseca JF, Pinto PHN, Rosa RM, Ribeiro LS, Almeida MS, Fabjan JMGS, Garcia AR, Brandao FZ. Doppler ultrasound in the diagnosis of early pregnancy in sheep. Anim Reprod. 2016;13(3):587.

Cameron AD, Nicholson SF, Nimrod CA, Harder JR, Davies DM. Doppler waveforms in the fetal aorta and umbilical artery in patients with hypertension in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1988;158(2):338-45. PMid:2963544.

Chen DG, Peace, KE. Clinical trial data analysis using R. 1st. ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2011.

Eghbali M, Deva R, Alioua A, Minosyan TY, Ruan H, Wang Y, Toro L, Stefani E. Molecular and functional signature of heart hypertrophy during pregnancy. Circ Res. 2005;96(11):1208-16. PMid:15905459.

Elmetwally M, Bollwein H. Uterine blood flow in sheep and goats during the peri-parturient period assessed by transrectal Doppler sonography. Anim Reprod Sci. 2016;176:32-30. PMid:27914630.

Elmetwally M, Rohn K, Meinecke-Tillmann S. Noninvasive color Doppler sonography of uterine blood flow throughout pregnancy in sheep and goats. Theriogenology. 2016;85(6):1070-9. PMid:26768538.

Feliciano MAR, Vicente WRR, Silva MAM. Conventional and Doppler ultrasound for the differentiation of benign and malignant canine mammary tumours. J Small Anim Pract. 2012;53(6):332-7. PMid:22647211.

Feliciano MAR, Oliveira MEF, Vicente WRR. Ultrassonografia na reprodução animal. 1. Ed. São Paulo: MedVet; 2013.

Fowden AL, Ward JW, Wooding FP, Forhead AJ, Constancia M. Programming placental nutrient transport capacity. J Physiol. 2006;572(Pt 1):1-15. PMid:16439433.

Giannico AT, Gil EMU, Garcia DAA, Froes TR. The use of Doppler evaluation of the canine umbilical artery in prediction of delivery time and fetal distress. Anim Reprod Sci. 2015;154:105-12. PMid:25596637.

Hackett GA, Campbell S, Gamsu H, Cohen-overbeek T, Pearce JMF. Doppler studies in the growth retarded fetus and prediction of neonatal necrotising enterocolitis, haemorrhage,-and neonatal morbidity. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1987;294(6563):294.

Hameed AB, Sklansky MS. Pregnancy: maternal and fetal heart disease. Curr Probl Cardiol. 2007;32(8):419-94. PMid:17643825.

Junior JCM, Morini AC, Motta LCB, Ambrosio CE, Favaron PO, Rodrigeus FTV, Ribeiro LAO, Bertolini LR, Bertolini M, Miglino MA, Bmbonato PP. Anim Reprod. 2019;15(4):1246-52.

Khong TY. Placental vascular development and neonatal outcome. Seminars in Neonat. J. 2004;9:255-263.

Kuznetsova A, Brockhopp PB, Christensen RHB. ImerTest package: tests in linear mixed effects models. J Stat Softw. 2017;82(13).

Korkmaz MK, Emsen E. Growth and reproductive traits of purebred and crossbred Romanov lambs in Eastern Anatolia. Anim Reprod. 2016;13(1):3-6.

Ogueh O, Clough A, Hancock M, Johnson MR. A longitudinal study of the control of renal and uterine hemodynamic changes of pregnancy. Hypertens Pregnancy. 2011;30(3):243-59. PMid:21740248.

Ousey JC, Kolling M, Newton R, Wright M, Allen WR. Uterine haemodynamics in young and aged pregnant mares measured using Doppler ultrasonography. Equine Vet J Suppl. 2012;44(41):15-21. PMid:22594020.

Reynolds LP, Ferrell CL, Robertson DA, Ford SP. Metabolism of the gravid uterus, fetus and utero-placenta at several stages of gestation in cows. J Agric Sci. 1986;106(3):437-44.

Reynolds LP, Borowicz PP, Vonnahme KA, Johnson ML, Grazul-Bilska AT, Wallace JM, Caton JS, Redmer DA. Animal models of placental angiogenesis. Placenta. 2005;26(10):689-708. PMid:16226119.

Riesen S, Schmid V, Gaschen L, Busato A, Lang J. Doppler measurement of splanchnic blood flow during digestion in unsedated normal dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2002;43(6):554-60. PMid:12502111.

Sarafana S, Coelho R, Neves A, Trindade JC. Aspectos da imunologia da gravidez. Acta Med Port. 2007;20(4):355-8. PMid:18198080.

Serin G, Gökdal Ö, Tarimcilar T, Atay O. Umbilical artery doppler sonography in Saanen goat fetuses during singleton and multiple pregnancies. Theriogenology, 2010;74(6):1082-87.

Silva LCG, Regazzi FM, Lúcio CF, Veiga GAL, Angrimani DSR, Fernandes CB, Vannucchi CI. Redox, acid-base and clinical analysis of preterm and term neonatal lambs. Anim Reprod. 2018;15(1):51-5. PMid:33365095.

Souza JMG, Gomes LM, Monteiro PLJ Jr, Bruschi JH, Viana JHM, Camargo LSA, Fonseca JF. Uso de protocolos curtos para indução de estro em ovelhas Santa Inês. In Proceedings of the 17th Congresso Brasileiro de Reprodução Animal; 2007; Belo Horizonte. Belo Horizonte: CBRA; 2007; [cited 2021 Jan 05] Available from:

Vannucchi CI, Veiga GAL, Silva LCG, Lúcio CF. Relationship between fetal biometric assessment by ultrasonography and neonatal lamb vitality, birth weight and growth. Anim Reprod. 2019;16(4):923-9. PMid:32368272.

Submitted date:

Accepted date:

60df91e4a953952e9d164133 animreprod Articles
Links & Downloads

Anim Reprod

Share this page
Page Sections