Animal Reproduction (AR)
Animal Reproduction (AR)

Indicators of immunosuppression peripartum in dual purpose cows in the tropics affected health, productive and reproductive parameters

Miguel Ángel Lammoglia; Ivan Avalos; Amalia Cabrera; Maria Rebeca Rojas; Nora Garcez; Abigail Tabarez

Downloads: 1
Views: 455


The objective of the study was to identify immunosuppression peripartum indicators in dual purpose cows in the tropics and determine their effects on productive and reproductive parameters. The indicators used were: changes in leukocyte and neutrophils population, concentrations of energy metabolites (β-hydroxybutyrate and glucose) and body condition scores (BCS). Blood sampling and BCS (scale 1 – 5) were taken weekly during the peripartum. Uterine health was assessed (3 weeks postpartum) by ultrasonography and using a vaginal score (0-3) described by Sheldon et al. (2006). Cows (n=30) were classified as healthy or clinical endometritis (CE). CE prevalence was as high as 29.6%. Leukocyte and neutrophils populations diminished while in the peripartum and were lower (P<0.05) in cows suffering CE. Healthy cows had higher (P<0.05) daily milk production than those with CE (18.84±0.63 vs 14.76±0.84 kg). CE cows had lower (P<0.05) reproductive performance compared with healthy cows (open days: 244.40 ± 35.00 vs 178.00 ± 23.33 and services by conception 3.33 ± 0.51 vs 1.83 ± 0.34). BCS similarly (P>0.05) decreased following parturition in both groups. Concentrations of energy metabolites during peripartum fluctuated in a similar (P>0.05) manner in healthy and CE cows. In summary, dual purpose cows in tropical conditions, presented peripartum immunosuppression indicators, characterized by a decline in the leukocyte population, mainly neutrophils, as well as decreased glucose concentrations and BCS postpartum. In addition to it, there was a rise in the β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations and cows presenting CE had a negative effect in the productive and reproductive parameters.


neutrophils, β-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, endometritis, tropics


Aleri JW, Hine BC, Pyman MF, Mansell PD, Wales WJ, Mallard B, Fisher AD. Periparturient immunosuppression and strategies to improve dairy cow’s health during the periparturient period. Res Vet Sci. 2016;108:8-17. PMid:27663364.

Barlund CS, Carruthers TD, Waldner CL, Palmer CW. A comparison of diagnostic techniques for postpartum endometritis in dairy cattle. Theriogenology. 2008;69(6):714-23. PMid:18242670.

Bromfield JJ, Watt MM, Iacovides SM. Characterization of peripheral blood mononuclear cell populations in periparturient dairy cows that develop metritis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2018;200:69-75. PMid:29776614.

Castillo-Valeriano CU, Lammoglia MA, Cabrera A, Rojas MR, Daniel IC, Bello AE. Indicadores de inmunosupresión periparto en la vaca de doble propósito del trópico veracruzano. In: Memorias XLII Congreso Nacional de Buiatría–Chihuahua; 2018 Aug 2-4; Chihuahua, México. Chihuahua: AMMVEB; 2018. p. 88-95.

Corro M, Rubio I, Castillo E, Galindo L, Aluja A, Galina CS, Murcia C. Effect of blood metabolites, body condition and pasture management on milk yield and postpartum intervals in dual-purpose cattle farms in the tropics of the state of Veracruz, Mexico. Prev Vet Med. 1999;38(2-3):101-17. PMid:10081791.

Cui L, Wang H, Ding Y, Li J, Li J. Changes in the blood routine, biochemical indexes, and the pro-inflammatory cytokine expressions of peripheral leukocytes in postpartum dairy cows with metritis. BMC Vet Res. 2019;15(1):157. PMid:31113485.

Drillich M, Beetz O, Pfutzner A, Sabin M, Sabin HJ, Kutzer P, Nattermann H, Heuwieser W. Evaluation of a systemic antibiotic treatment of toxic puerperal metritis in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2001;84(9):2010-7. PMid:11573780.

Dubuc J, Duffield TF, Leslie KE, Walton JS, LeBlanc SJ. Effects of postpartum uterine diseases on milk production and culling in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2011;94(3):1339-46. PMid:21338799.

Elkjær K, Labouriau R, Ancker ML, Gustafsson H, Callesen H. Large-scale study on effects of metritis on reproduction in Danish Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci. 2013;96(1):372-7. PMid:23164224.

Esposito G, Irons PC, Webb EC, Chapwanya A. Interactions between negative energy balance, metabolic diseases, uterine health and immune response in transition dairy cows. Anim Reprod Sci. 2014;144(3-4):60-71.

Ferguson JD, Galligan DT, Thomsen N. Principal descriptors of body condition score in Holstein Cows. J Dairy Sci. 1994;77(9):2695-703. PMid:7814740.

Fiorentin E, Tiecher A, Menegat C, Soares C, Aires A, Rocha R, Gonzales FHD. Accuracy of two hand-held electronic devices for determination of blood β-hydroxybutyrate in dairy cows. Rev Bras Saúde Prod Anim. 2017;18(3):439-445.

Gilbert RO, Shin ST, Guard CL, Erb HN, Frajblat M. Prevalence of endometritis and its effects on reproductive performance of dairy cows. Theriogenology. 2005;64(9):1879-88. PMid:15961149.

Giuliodori MJ, Magnasco RP, Becu-Villalobos D, Lacau-Mengido IM, Risco CA, De la Sota RL. Metritis in dairy cows: risk factors and reproductive performance. J Dairy Sci. 2013;96(6):3621-31. PMid:23548288.

Goshen T, Shpigel NY. Evaluation of intrauterine antibiotic treatment of clinical metritis and retained fetal membranes in dairy cows. Theriogenology. 2006;66(9):2210-8. PMid:16962164.

Hammon DS, Evjen IM, Dhiman TR, Goff JP, Walters JL. Neutrophil function and energy status in Holstein cows with uterine health disorders. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2006;113(1-2):21-9. PMid:16740320.

Ingvartsen KL, Moyes K. Factors contributing to immunosuppression in the dairy cow during the periparturient period. Jpn J Vet Res. 2015;63(Suppl. 1):15–24.

Ingvartsen KL, Moyes K. Nutrition, immune function, and health of dairy cattle. Animal. 2013;7(Suppl 1):112-22. PMid:23031687.

Islam R, Kumar H, Krishnan BB. Investigation on leukocyte profile of periparturient cows with or without postpartum reproductive disease. Asian Pac J Reprod. 2014;3(1):57-63.

Kimura K, Goff JP, Canning P, Wang C, Roth JA. Effect of recombinant bovine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor covalently bound to polyethylene glycol injection on neutrophil number and function in periparturient dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2014;97(8):4842-51. PMid:24881799.

LeBlanc S, Duffield TF, Leslie KE, Bateman KG, Keefe GP, Walton JS, Johnson WH. Defining and diagnosing postpartum clinical endometritis and its impact on reproductive performance in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2002;85(9):2223-36. PMid:12362455.

LeBlanc SJ. Monitoring metabolic health of dairy cattle in transition period. J Reprod Dev. 2010;56(Suppl):S29-35. PMid:20629214.

Lochmiller RL, Deerenberg C. Trade-off in evolutionary immunology: just what is the cost ofimmunity? Oikos. 2000;88(1):87-98.

Markusfeld O, Ezra E. Body measurements, metritis, and postpartum performance of first lactation cows. J Dairy Sci. 1993;76(12):3771-7. PMid:8132884.

McArt JAA, Nydam DV, Oetzel GR. Epidemiology of subclinical ketosis in early lactation dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci. 2012;95(9):5056-66. PMid:22916909.

McDougall S, LeBlanc SJ, Heiser A. Effect of prepartum energy balance on neutrophil function following pegbovigrastim treatment in periparturient cows. J Dairy Sci. 2017;100(9):7478-92. PMid:28647326.

Nonnecke BJ, Kimura K, Goff JP, Kehrli ME Jr. Effect of the mammary gland on functional capacities of blood mononuclear leucocytes populations from periparturient cows. J Dairy Sci. 2003;86(7):2359-68. PMid:12906053.

Pires JAA, Delavaud C, Faulconnier Y, Pomies D, Chilliard D. Effect of body condition score at calving on indicators of fat and protein mobilization of periparturient Holstein-Friesian cows. J Dairy Sci. 2013;96(10):6423-39. PMid:23910547.

Ramírez-Rivera EJ, Rodríguez-Miranda J, Huerta-Mora IR, Cárdenas-Cágal A, Juárez-Barrientos JM. Tropical milk production systems and milk quality: a Review. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2019;51(6):1295-305. PMid:31134554.

Sheldon IM, Croning JG, Bromfield JJ. Tolerance and innate immunity shape the development of postpartum disease and the impact of endometritis in dairy cows. Annu Rev Anim Biosci. 2019;7:361-384.

Sheldon IM, Lewis GS, LeBlanc SJ, Gilbert RO. Defining postpartum uterine disease in cattle. Theriogenology. 2006;65(8):1516-30. PMid:16226305.

Sordillo LM, Contreras G, Aitken SL. Metabolic factors affecting the inflammatory response of periparturient dairy cows. Anim Health Res Rev. 2009;10(1):53-63. PMid:19558749.

Soussana JF, Tallec T, Blanfort V. Mitigating the greenhouse gas balance of ruminant production systems through carbon sequestration in grasslands. Animal. 2010;4(3):334-50. PMid:22443939.

Toni F, Vincenti L, Ricci A, Schukken H. Postpartum uterine diseases and their impacts on conception and days open in dairy herds in Italy. Theriogenology. 2015;84(7):1206-14. PMid:26210315.

Vallejo Timarán DA, Benavides Melo CJ, Murillo Patiño DP, Astaiza Martinez JM, Chavez Velazques CA. Efecto de las enfermedades en posparto temprano sobre el intervalo parto concepción: un estudio de cohorte en vacas lecheras de Pasto, Colombia. CES Med Vet Zootec. 2017;12(1):33-43.

Vilaboa AJ, Díaz RP, Ruiz RO, Platas RD, González MS, Juárez LF. Caracterización socioeconómica y tecnológica de los agroecosistemas con bovinos de doble propósito de la región del Papaloapan, Veracruz, México. Trop Subtrop Agroecosystems. 2009;10:53-62.

Wankhade PR, Manimaran A, Kumaresan A, Jeyakumar S, Ramesha KP, Sejian V, Rajendran D, Varghese MR. Metabolic and immunological changes in transition dairy cows: a review. Vet World. 2017;10(11):1367-77. PMid:29263601.

Wathes DC, Cheng Z, Bourne N, Taylor VJ, Coffey MP, Brotherstone S. Differences between primiparous and multiparous dairy cows in the inter-relationship between metabolic traits, milk yield and body condition score in the periparturient period. Domest Anim Endocrinol. 2007;33(2):203-25. PMid:16806790.

Wittrock JM, Proudfoot KL, Weary DM, Von Keyserlingk MAG. Short communication: metritis affects milk production and cull rate of Holstein multiparous and primiparous dairy cows differently. J Dairy Sci. 2011;94(5):2408-12. PMid:21524531.

Zhang F, Li D, Wu Q, Sun J, Guan W, Hou Y, Zhu Y, Wang J. Prepartum body conditions affect insulin signaling pathways in postpartum adipose tissues in transition dairy cows. J Anim Sci Biotechnol. 2019;10:38. PMid:31114678.

Submitted date:

Accepted date:

61d5ecc7a953951fca0f4764 animreprod Articles
Links & Downloads

Anim Reprod

Share this page
Page Sections