Animal Reproduction (AR)
Animal Reproduction (AR)

Kinetic vitrification: concepts and perspectives in animal sperm cryopreservation

Bianca Barreto Barbosa; Inara Tayná Alves Evangelista; Airton Renan Bastos Soares; Danuza Leite Leão; Ricardo José Garcia Pereira; Sheyla Farhayldes Souza Domingues

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Sperm cryopreservation is an important tool for genetic diversity management programs and the conservation of endangered breeds and species. The most widely used method of sperm conservation is slow freezing, however, during the process, sperm cells suffer from cryoinjury, which reduces their viability and fertility rates. One of the alternatives to slow freezing is vitrification, that consist on rapid freezing, in which viable cells undergo glass-like solidification. This technology requires large concentrations of permeable cryoprotectants (P- CPA’s) which increase the viscosity of the medium to prevent intracellular ice formation during cooling and warming, obtaining successful results in vitrification of oocytes and embryos. Unfortunately, this technology failed when applied to vitrification of sperm due to its higher sensitivity to increasing concentrations of P-CPAs. Alternatively, a technique termed ‘kinetic sperm vitrification’ has been used and consists in a technique of permeant cryoprotectant-free cryopreservation by direct plunging of a sperm suspension into liquid nitrogen. Some of the advantages of kinetic vitrification are the speed of execution and no rate-controlled equipment required. This technique has been used successfully and with better results for motility in human (50-70% motility recovery), dog (42%), fish (82%) and donkey (21.7%). However, more studies are required to improve sperm viability after devitrification, especially when it comes to motility recovery. The objective of this review is to present the principles of kinetic vitrification, the main findings in the literature, and the perspectives for the utilization of this technique as a cryopreservation method.


assisted reproduction, cryobank, cryopreservation, cryoprotectant-free, spermatozoa


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