Animal Reproduction (AR)
Animal Reproduction (AR)

Establishment of pelvic inflammatory disease model induced by vaginal injection of Ureaplasma urealyticum liquids combined with fatigue and hunger

Pengfei Liu; Xiao Yu; Jinjin Wang; Li Wang; Yi Ding; Jinxing Liu

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Abstract: Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an inflammation of the upper genital tract. PID is the leading cause of some severe sequelae in the absence of timely and accurate diagnosis and treatment. An appropriate animal model is needed to explore the underlying mechanism of PID sequelae. This study introduced an animal model of PID by vaginal injection of liquid Ureaplasma urealyticum combined with fatigue and hunger (UVF). This study was designed to test the feasibility of a rat model. A rat model was established using UVF irradiation. Levels of some inflammatory cytokines in the serum and the homogenates of the fallopian tubes were measured by ELISA, RT-PCR, and flow cytometry and compared with another rat model of Ureaplasma urealyticum liquids injected into the two uterus horns during laparotomy. Inflammatory alterations and adhesions were observed after hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and detected using the Blauer scoring system. The results showed that the combined UVF and rat model caused apparent obstruction, edema, and adhesion in the fallopian tubes and connective tissues. The rat model showed upregulated CD4, CD8, and CD4/CD8 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and significantly increased levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-17. UVF also enhanced the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) β, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 (P<0.05). The UVF rat model can induce inflammatory alterations in the fallopian tubes and connective tissues, and can be used as a model of PID.


pelvic inflammatory disease, microorganism, inflammatory cytokines, adhesion


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