Animal Reproduction (AR)
Animal Reproduction (AR)

Systematic review and meta-analysis on patented and non-patented vitrification processes to ovarian tissue reported between 2000 and 2021

Éverton Pimentel Ferreira Lopes; Gildas Mbemya Tetaping; Marco Aurélio Schiavo Novaes; Regiane Rodrigues dos Santos; Ana Paula Ribeiro Rodrigues

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Due to the great interest in ovarian cryopreservation and, consequently conservation and restoration of female fertility in the last decades, different vitrification procedures (vitrification devices or solutions) have been developed, patented, and used both for academic research purposes and for clinical use. Therefore, the present study aimed to provide a systematic review and meta-analysis of data obtained from the application of different patented and non-patented vitrification devices and solutions in different countries. For this purpose, relevant observational studies published between the years 2000 to 2021 were selected to verify the efficiency of ovarian vitrification processes on parameters such as morphology, viability, and apoptosis in preantral ovarian follicles after transplantation or in vitro culture. Our research revealed that, although several countries were considered in the study, the United States and Japan were the countries that registered the most processes, and 22 and 16 vitrification devices and solutions out of a total of 51, respectively were patented. Sixty-two non-patented processes were also considered in the study in all countries. We also observed that transplantation and in vitro ovarian culture were the techniques predominantly used to evaluate the efficiency of the devices and vitrification solutions, respectively. In conclusion, this review showed that patented or non-patented protocols available in the literature are able to successfully preserve preantral follicles present in ovarian tissue. Despite the satisfactory results reported so far, adjustments in ovarian vitrification protocols in order to minimize cryoinjuries to the follicles remain one of the goals of cryopreservation and preservation of the female reproductive function. We found that vitrification alters the morphology and viability, and offers risks leading in some cases to follicular apoptosis. However, adjustments to current protocols to develop an optimal procedure can minimize damage by not compromising follicular development after vitrification/warming.


intellectual property, cryopreservation, ovarian follicles, fertility preservation


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