Animal Reproduction (AR)
Animal Reproduction (AR)

Use of monosodium-glutamate as a novel dietary supplement strategy for ovarian stimulation in goats

Anne Caroline Santos Soares; Juliana Paula Martins Alves; César Carneiro Linhares Fernandes; Maria Raquel Lopes Silva; Alfredo José Herrera Conde; Dárcio Ítalo Alves Teixeira; Davide Rondina

Downloads: 0
Views: 159


This study aimed to investigate the reproductive effects of adding monosodium glutamate (MSG) to the diet of goats. Eleven adult goats received synchronized estrus and follicular waves using three prostaglandin analog injections every seven days. Goats allocated to individual pens received 1 g/kg BW of MSG in their diet for 23 days (MOGLU group, n = 6), whereas the control group (n = 5) maintained the base diet. The supplemented animals showed an increase in dry matter intake (P < 0.0001) and a reduction in heart rate (P < 0.05), respiratory rate, and ruminal movement (P < 0.001). Surface and rectal temperatures were higher in the MOGLU group, (P < 0.0001) with a significant increase in the afternoon. There was an increase (P < 0.05) in the frequency of behaviors related to rumination, defecation, and urination in the MOGLU group, and a reduction in behaviors associated with stress (P < 0.05). No differences were observed in the plasma levels of proteins, albumin, urea, cholesterol, or triglycerides. Glucose levels were lower (P < 0.05) in the MOGLU group, which also showed increased glutathione peroxide levels during the induction of ovulation. Supplemented animals recorded a larger number (P < 0.05) of follicles throughout the experimental period and higher intraovarian blood perfusion (P < 0.05) during ovulation induction. We conclude that MSG exerts a positive effect on the reproductive response in goats and therefore represents an effective nutritional supplement.


goat, glutamate monosodium, follicle, ovary, Doppler, diet supplementation


Acosta TJ, Hayashi KG, Ohtani M, Miyamoto A. Local changes in blood flow within the preovulatory follicle wall and early corpus luteum in cows. Reproduction. 2003;125(5):759-67. PMid:12713439.

Ahmed RR, Abdul-Hamid M, Galaly SR, Hamdalla HM. Monosodium glutamate-induced liver microscopic and biochemical changes in male rats, and the possible amendment of quercetin. Egyptian Journal of Zoology. 2019;71(71):44-55.

Alborzi P, Jafari Atrabi M, Akbarinejad V, Khanbabaei R, Fathi R. Incorporation of arginine, glutamine or leucine in culture medium accelerates in vitro activation of primordial follicles in 1-day-old mouse ovary. Zygote. 2020;28(5):409-416. PMid:32482183.

Alves JPM, Fernandes CCL, Rossetto R, Silva CPD, Galvão ITOM, Bertolini M, Rondina D. Impact of short nutrient stimuli with different energy source on follicle dynamics and quality of oocyte from hormonally stimulated goats. Reprod Domest Anim. 2019;54(9):1206-16. PMid:31240745.

Ayyat MS, Al-Sagheer A, Noreldin AE, Abd El-Hack ME, Khafaga AF, Abdel-Latif MA, Swelum AA, Arif M, Salem AZM. Beneficial effects of rumen-protected methionine on nitrogen-use efficiency, histological parameters, productivity and reproductive performance of ruminants. Anim Biotechnol. 2021;32(1):51-66. PMid:31443628.

Bateson M, Martin P. Measuring behaviour: an introductory guide. 3rd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2007

Cavalcanti CM, Silva MRL, Conde AJH, Bezerra AF, Alves JPM, Fernandes CCL, Teixeira DÍA, Rêgo AC, Rondina D. Effect of periconception high fat diets on maternal ovarian function, foetal and placentome growth, and vascular umbilical development in goats. Reprod Domest Anim. 2022;57(12):1481-92. PMid:35925942.

Dutra PA, Pinto LFB, Cardoso-Neto BM, Mendes CS, Pinheiro AM, Barbosa LP, Pereira TCJ, Carvalho GGP. Flaxseed added to the diet of Alpine goats affects the nutrients intake and blood parameters. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2022;54(2):104. PMid:35165796.

Fernandes CCL, Rodriguez-Villamil P, Vasconcelos FR, Nagano CS, Rossetto R, Moura AAAN, Rondina D. Proteome of the periovulatory oviduct and uterus of goats as related to nutritional balance. Reprod Domest Anim. 2018;53(5):1085-95. PMid:29885005.

Feyz M, Teimouri YA, Chashnidel Y, Dirandeh E. Effect of protein levels and rumen protected glutamine supplementation on blood metabolites, thyroid hormones, and redox status of heat stressed fattening lambs. Iran J Appl Anim Sci. 2021;11(3):557-65.

Gilbreath KR, Bazer FW, Satterfield MC, Wu G. Amino acid nutrition and reproductive performance in ruminants. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1285:43-61. PMid:33770402.

Gilbreath KR, Nawaratna GI, Wickersham TA, Satterfield MC, Bazer FW, Wu G. Ruminal microbes of adult steers do not degrade extracellular L-citrulline and have a limited ability to metabolize extracellular L-glutamate. J Anim Sci. 2019;97(9):3611-6. PMid:31269197.

Gilbreath KR, Nawaratna GI, Wickersham TA, Satterfield MC, Bazer FW, Wu G. Metabolic studies reveal that ruminal microbes of adult steers do not degrade rumen-protected or unprotected L-citrulline. J Anim Sci. 2020;98(1):skz370. PMid:31830257.

Ginther OJ, Kot K. Follicular dynamics during the ovulatory season in goats. Theriogenology. 1994;42(6):987-1001. PMid:16727603.

Guido SI, Andrade JCO, Guido FCL, Oliveira MAL, Lima PF, Moura RTD, Santos VF, Cavalcanti CC. No. Avaliação de corpos lúteos de receptoras caprinas. Rev Bras Reprod Anim. 2003;27(3):491-2.

Härter CJ, Silva HGO, Lima LD, Castagnino DS, Rivera AR, Neto OB, Gomes RA, Canola JC, Resende KT, Teixeira IAMA. Ultrasonographic measurements of kidney fat thickness and Longissimus muscle area in predicting body composition of pregnant goats. Anim Prod Sci. 2014;54(9):1481-5.

Hernandez J, Benedito JL, Castillo C. Relevance of the study of metabolic profiles in sheep and goat flock. Present and future: a review. Span J Agric Res. 2020;18(3):e06R01.

Hisadomi S, Haruno A, Fujieda T, Sugino T, Oba M. Rumen-protected glutamate supplementation in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2022;105:3129-41. PMid:35086702.

Ipsa E, Cruzat VF, Kagize JN, Yovich JL, Keane KN. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor action in reproductive tissues. Front in Endo. 2019;10:1-14.

Iremonger KJ, Constantin S, Liu X, Herbison AE. Glutamate regulation of GnRH neuron excitability. Brain Res. 2010;1364:35-43. PMid:20807514.

Lass G, Li XF, Voliotis M, Wall E, de Burgh RA, Ivanova D, McIntyre C, Lin XH, Colledge WH, Lightman SL, Tsaneva-Atanasova K, O’Byrne KT. GnRH pulse generator frequency is modulated by kisspeptin and GABA glutamate interactions in the posterodorsal medial amygdala in female mice. Neuroendocrinol. 2022;34(11):e13207. PMid:36305576.

Leme TMC, Titto EAL, Titto CG, Pereira AMF, Chiquitelli Neto M. Influence of stocking density on weight gain and behavior of feedlot lambs. Small Rumin Res. 2013;115(1-3):1-6.

Li C, Zhang J, Li Y, Zhao X, Liang H, Li K, Qu M, Qiu Q, Ouyang K. Glutamate supplementation improves growth performance, rumen fermentation, and serum metabolites in heat-stressed Hu sheep. Front Nutr. 2022;9:851386. PMid:35464012.

Luna-García LA, Meza-Herrera CA, Pérez-Marín CC, Corona R, Luna-Orozco JR, Véliz-Deras FG, Delgado-Gonzalez R, Rodriguez-Venegas R, Rosales-Nieto CA, Bustamante-Andrade JA, Gutierrez-Guzman UN. Goats as valuable animal model to test the targeted glutamate supplementation upon antral follicle number, ovulation rate, and LH-Pulsatility. Biology. 2022;11(7):1015. PMid:36101396.

Magalhães-Padilha DM, Fonseca GR, Haag KT, Wischral A, Gastal MO, Jones KL, Geisler-Lee J, Figueiredo JR, Gastal EL. Long-term in vitro culture of ovarian cortical tissue in goats: effects of FSH and IGF-I on preantral follicular development and FSH and IGF-I receptor mRNA expression. Cell Tissue Res. 2012;350(3):503-11. PMid:23053050.

Meza-Herrera CA, Calderon-Leyva G, Soto-Sanchez MJ, Serradilla JM, Garcia-Martinez A, Mellado M, Veliz-Deras FG. Glutamate supply positively affects serum cholesterol concentrations without increases in total protein and urea around the onset of puberty in goats. Anim Reprod Sci. 2014a;147(3-4):106-11. PMid:24811839.

Meza-Herrera CA, González-Velázquez A, Veliz-Deras FG, Rodríguez-Martínez R, Arellano-Rodriguez G, Serradilla JM, García-Martínez A, Avendaño-Reyes L, Macías-Cruz U. Short-term glutamate administration positively affects the number of antral follicles and the ovulation rate in cyclic adult goats. Reprod Biol. 2014b;14(4):298-301. PMid:25454497.

Meza-Herrera CA, Vergara-Hernández HP, Paleta-Ochoa A, Álvarez-Ruíz AR, Veliz-Deras FG, Arellano-Rodriguez G, Rosales-Nieto CA, Macias-Cruz U, Rodriguez-Martinez R, Carrillo E. Glutamate supply reactivates ovarian function while increases serum insulin and triiodothyronine concentrations in criollo x saanen-alpine yearlings’ goats during the anestrous season. Animals. 2020;10(2):234. PMid:32024282.

Monte APO, Barros VRP, Santos JM, Menezes VG, Cavalcante AYP, Gouveia BB, Bezerra MES, Macedo TJS, Matos MHT. Immunohistochemical localization of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in the sheep ovary and the synergistic effect of IGF-1 and FSH on follicular development in vitro and LH receptor immunostaining. Theriogenology. 2019;129:61-9. PMid:30822644.

Newsholme P, Procopio J, Lima MMR, Pithon-Curi TC, Curi R. Glutamine and glutamate their central role in cell metabolism and function. Cell Biochem Funct. 2003;21(1):1-9. PMid:12579515.

NRC – National Research Council. Nutrient requirements of small ruminants. Washington: National Academies Press; 2007. 347 p.

Padunglerk A, Prasanpanich S, Kongmun P. Use of monosodium glutamate by-product in cow diet on performance of lactating dairy cows. Anim Sci J. 2017;88(1):86-93. PMid:27128520.

Pei J, Pan X, Wei G, Hua Y. Research progress of glutathione peroxidase family (GPX) in redoxidation. Front Pharmacol. 2023;14:1147414. PMid:36937839.

Rezaei R, Gabriel AS, Wu G. Dietary supplementation with monosodium glutamate enhances milk production by lactating sows and the growth of suckling piglets. Amino Acids. 2022;54(7):1055-68. PMid:35292855.

Ribeiro NL, Germano Costa R, Pimenta Filho EC, Ribeiro MN, Bozzi R. Effects of the dry and the rainy season on endocrine and physiologic profiles of goats in the Brazilian semi-arid region. Ital J Anim Sci. 2018;17(2):454-61.

Rondina D, Freitas VJF, Júnior EL, Mura S, Degli P, Giorgetti A. Physiological response of local and saanen x local cross goats during the late rainy season in North-eastern Brazil. Tropicultura. 2004;22(3):146-50.

Rossi P Jr, Sampaio AAM, Vieira PF. Intestinal availability and absorption of amino acids in steers fed diets supplemented with different protein sources. Rev Bras Zootec. 2007;36(4):960-7.

Rukboon P, Prasanpanich S, Kongmun P. Effects of cassava pulp mixed with monosodium glutamate by-product (CPMSG) as a protein source in goat concentrate diet. Indian J Anim Res. 2018;53(6):774-9.

Sakaguchi K, Kawano K, Otani Y, Yanagawa Y, Katagiri S, Telfer EE. Relationship between amino acid metabolism and bovine in vitro follicle activation and growth. Animals. 2023;13(7):1141. PMid:37048397.

Tabassum S, Ahmad S, Madiha S, Shahzad S, Batool Z, Sadir S, Haider S. Free L-glutamate-induced modulation in oxidative and neurochemical profile contributes to enhancement in locomotor and memory performance in male rats. Sci Rep. 2020;10(1):11206. PMid:32641780.

Teixeira A, Joy M, Delfa R. In vivo estimation of goat carcass composition and body fat partition by real-time ultrasonography. J Anim Sci. 2008;86(9):2369-76. PMid:18469057.

Thuy LN, Salanta L, Tofana M, Socaci SA, Fărcaș AC, Pop CR. A mini review about monosodium glutamate. Bull. Univ. Agric. Sci. Vet. Med. 2020;77(1):1-12.

Viñoles C, Paganoni B, Glover KMM, Milton JTB, Blache D, Blackberry MA, Martin GB. The use of a “first-wave” model to study the effect of nutrition on ovarian follicular dynamics and ovulation rate in the sheep. Reproduction. 2010;140(6):865-74. PMid:21109612.

Walker R, Lupien JR. The safety evaluation of monosodium glutamate. J Nutr. 2000;130(4, Suppl):1049S-52S. PMid:10736380.

Wang L, Tang J, Wang L, Tan F, Song H, Zhou J, Li F. Oxidative stress in oocyte aging and female reproduction. J Cell Physiol. 2021;236(12):7966-83. PMid:34121193.

Wu G, Bazer FW, Satterfield MC, Gilbreath KR, Posey EA, Sun Y. L-Arginine nutrition and metabolism in ruminants. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2022;1354:177-206. PMid:34807443.

Yan M, Zhao G, Wang C, Min A, Chen M, Zhiqiang L, Wang J, Yang K. Effects of supplementation with different concentrations of L-citrulline on the plasma amino acid concentration, reproductive hormone concentrations, antioxidant capacity, and reproductive performance of Hu ewes. Anim Prod Sci. 2023;63(9):853-61.

Yuan C, Chen X, Shen C, Chen L, Zhao Y, Wang X, Cao M, Zhao Z, Chen T, Zhang B, Iqbal T, Li C, Zhou X. Follicular fluid exosomes regulate oxidative stress resistance, proliferation, and steroid synthesis in porcine theca cells. Theriogenology. 2022;194:75-82. PMid:36209547.

Submitted date:

Accepted date:

654bda4aa953954d85727863 animreprod Articles
Links & Downloads

Anim Reprod

Share this page
Page Sections