Animal Reproduction (AR)
Animal Reproduction (AR)
Original Articles

Calf presence and estrous response, ovarian follicular activity and the pattern of luteinizing hormone in postpartum Bos indicus cows

Eduardo Gularte Xavier, Carlos Salvador Galina, Claudio Alves Pimentel, Sandra Fiala Rechsteiner, Martin Maquivar

Downloads: 2
Views: 882


The main objective of the present experiment was to assess the effect of temporary weaning on the onset of estrus, ovarian follicular activity and secretion of luteinizing hormone in Bos indicus cows. Forty six mature cows were divided into three groups 1) calves were weaned for 72 h allowing auditory, olfactory and visual contact with their dams (VISUAL, n = 17), 2) calves without contact with their dams for 72 h (NC, n = 17) and 3) calves not weaned and in constant contact with their dams (CTRL, n = 12). Estrus was synchronized in all cows using CIDR for 9 days plus 2 mg of estradiol benzoate given at CIDR insertion. The VISUAL group had a greater (P < 0.05) proportion of cows in estrus (76.5%) compared to the CTRL group (16.7%), but no differences were found when compared to the NC group (58.8%). The VISUAL group had a greater proportion of animal that ovulated (76.5%) compared to CTRL (33.3%) and NC groups (64.7%; P = 0.059). Duration of estrus was shorter (P = 0.04) in the VISUAL (8.4 ± 4.4 hours) than in the NC (12.9 ± 13.4 hours) however, CTRL treatment (11 ± 1.4 hours) was not different from either of these two groups. LH concentration after implant removal was similar among treatments and started to increase at 36 h post CIDR removal. Only in the CTRL group was there an obvious increase by 54 h after implant removal. Follicular size increased in diameter from 36 h and were evident in treatments and control groups by 60 h (P < 0.05). The VISUAL treatment increased the number of cows ovulating and shortened the length of estrus. VISUAL and NC groups showed a similar response in follicular growth and pattern of circulating LH because of treatment.


Bos indicus, LH, postpartum, temporary weaning.


Abeygunawardena H, Dematawewa C. 2004. Prepuberal and postpartum anestrus in tropical Zebu cattle. Anim Reprod Sci, 82:83, 373-387.

Baruselli PS, Reis EL, Marques MO, Nasser LF, Bó GA. 2004. The use of hormonal treatments to improve reproductive performance of anestrous beef cattle in tropical climates. Anim Reprod Sci, 82:83, 479-86.

Chenoweth PJ. 1994. Aspects of reproduction in female Bos indicus cattle: a review. Aust Vet J, 71:422-426.

Day ML. 2004. Hormonal induction of estrous cycles in anestrous Bos taurus beef cows. Anim Reprod Sci, 82:83, 487-494.

Díaz R, Galina CS, Rubio I, Corro M, Pablos JL, Rodríguez A, Orihuela A. 2017. Resumption of ovarian function, the metabolic profile and body condition in Brahman cows (Bos indicus) is not affected by the combination of calf separation and progestogen treatment. Anim Reprod Sci, 185:181-187

Edmonson AJ, Lean IJ, Weaver LD, Farver T, Webster G. 1989. A body condition score chart for Holstein cows. J Anim Sci, 72:68-78.

Galina CS, Arthur GH. 1989. Review of cattle reproduction in the tropics. Part 3. Puerperium. Breed Abstr, 57:899-910.

Hernández A, Galina CS, Diaz R, Rubio I, Corro M, Romero JJ. 2015. Comparison of two insemination programs in synchronized early postpartum zebu cows under tropical conditions. An economic appraisal. Open Vet J, 234-242

Hoffman DP, Stevenson JS, Minton JE. 1996. Restricting calf presence without suckling compared with weaning prolongs postpartum anovulation in beef cattle. J Anim Sci, 74:190-198.

Jolly PD, McDougall S, Fitzpatrick LA, Macmillan KL, Entwistle, KW. 1995. Physiological effects of undernutrition on postpartum anoestrus in cows. J Reprod Fertil Suppl, 49:477-492.

Lamb GC, Miller BL, Lynch JM, Thompson KE, Heldt JS, Löest CA, Grieger DM, Stevenson J. 1999. Twice daily suckling but not milking with calf presence prolongs postpartum anovulation. J Anim Sci, 77:2207-2218.

Maquivar M, Veduzco A, Galina CS, Pulido A, Rojas S, Forster K, Van der Laan G, Arnoni R. 2007. Relationship among follicular growth, oestrus, time of ovulation, endogenous estradiol 17β and luteinizing hormone in Bos indicus cows after a synchronization program. Reprod Domest Anim, 42:571-576.

Mikeska JC, Williams GL. 1988. Timing of preovulatory endocrine events, estrus and ovulation in Brahman x Hereford females synchronized with Norgestomet and Estradiol Valerate. J Anim Sci, 66: 939-946.

Mondragón V, Galina CS, Rubio I, Corro M, Salmerón F. 2016. Effect of restricted suckling on the onset of follicular dynamics and body condition score in Brahman cattle raised under tropical conditions Anim Reprod Sci, 161:89-95.

Orihuela A, Galina CS, Escobar J, Riquelme E. 1983. Oestrous behaviour following prostaglandin F2a injection in Zebu cattle under continuous observation. Theriogenology, 19:795-809.

Perea FP, De Ondiz AD, Palomares RA, Hernández HJ, González R, Soto ER. 2008. Control of postpartum anestrous with an intra-vaginal progesterone device plus eCG or calf removal for 120 h in suckled crossbred cows managed in a pasture-based system. Anim Reprod Sci, 106:298-310.

Perera-Marin G, Murcia C, Rojas S, Hernandez-Ceron J, Gonzalez-Padilla E 2005. Pattern of circulating luteinizing hormone isoforms during the estrous and luteal phases in Holstein heifers. Anim Reprod Sci, 86:53-69.

Pérez LI, Orihuela A, Galina CS, Rubio I, Corro M, Cohen A, Hernandez A. 2017. Effect of different periods of maternal deprivation on behavioral and cortisol responses at weaning and subsequent growth rate in Zebu (Bos indicus) type cattle”. Livest Sci, 197:17-21.

Pérez-Torres L, Rubio I, Corro M, Cohen A, Orihuela A, Galina CS Pablos JL. 2015. A pre synchronization program at early postpartum might increase the chances of Bos indicus cows cycling prior to 50 days regardless of the length of calf separation. J Reprod Dev, 61:199-2003.

Pinheiro VG, Souza AF, Pegorer MF, Satrapa RA, Ereno RL, Trinca LA, Barros CM. 2009. Effects of temporary calf removal and eCG on pregnancy rates to timed-insemination in progesterone-treated postpartum Nellore cows. Theriogenology, 71:519-524.

Quintans G, Vázquez AI, Weigel KA. 2009. Effect of suckling restriction with nose plates and premature weaning on postpartum anestrous interval in primiparous cows under range conditions. Anim Reprod Sci, 116:10-18.

Quintans G, Banchero G, Carriquiry M, López-Mazz C, Baldi F. 2010. Effect of body condition and suckling restriction with and without presence of the calf on cow and calf performance. Anim Prod Sci, 50:931-938.

Rhodes FM, McDougall S, Burke CR, Verkek GA, Macmillan KL 2003. Treatment of cows with an extended postpartum anestrous interval. Review. J Dairy Sci, 86:1876-1894.

Sá Filho OG, Meneghetti M, Peres RFG, Lamb GC, Vasconcelos JLM. 2009 Fixed-time artificial insemination with estradiol and progesterone for Bos indicus cows II: Strategies and factors affecting fertility. Theriogenology, 72:210-218.

Sartori R, Bastos MR, Baruselli PS, Gimenes LU, Ereno RL, Barros CM. 2010. Physiological differences and implications to reproductive management of Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle in a tropical environment. Soc Reprod Fertil Suppl, 67:357-375.

SAS Institute Inc. 2004. SAS OnlineDoc® 9.1.2. Cary, NC, USA: SAS Institute Inc.

Ungerfeld R, Hötzel MJ, Scarsi A, Quintans G. 2011. Behavioral and physiological changes in early-weaned multiparous and primiparous beef cows. Animal, 5:1270-1275.

Vasconcelos JLM, Sá Filho OG, Campos PG, Nogueira SAT. 2009. Intravaginal progesterone and/or temporary weaning on reproductive performance of anestrous crossbred Angus x Nelore cows. Anim Reprod Sci, 111:302-311.

Viker SD, Larson RL, Kiracofe GH, Stewart RE, Stevenson JS. 1993. Prolonged postpartum anovulation in mastectomized cows requires tactile stimulation by the calf. J Anim Sci, 71:999-1003.

Webb C, Galina CS, Molina R, Maquivar M, Estrada S. 2004. Effect of two types of weaning and the application of a progestagen on the fertility in Bos indicus cattle. Arch Med Vet, 36:147-154.

Williams GL. 1990. Suckling as a regulator of post-partum rebreeding in cattle. J Anim Sci, 68: 831-852.

Williams GL, Gazal OS, Guzman GA, Stanko RL. 1996. Mechanisms regulating suckling mediated anovulation in the cow. Anim Reprod Sci, 42:289-297.

Yavas Y, Walton JS. 2000. Postpartum acyclicity in suckled beef cows: a review. Theriogenology, 54:25-55.

5c07de120e88251b6d0e27c2 animreprod Articles
Links & Downloads

Anim Reprod

Share this page
Page Sections