Expression of estrus as a relevant factor in fixed-time embryo transfer programs using estradiol/progesterone-based protocols in cattle
The main objective of implementing embryo transfer in beef operations is to accelerate the rate of genetic progress in the herd. Among the main factors that affect the use of these technologies are related to nutrition, management and estrus synchronization. As a result of research conducted over the last 20 years, recipient utilization has increased by applying protocols that synchronize ovulation and allow for embryo transfer without the need for estrus detection, usually referred to as fixed-time embryo transfer (FTET). Although these protocols have performed adequately for several years, recent attention has been directed to the effect of estrus expression and estradiol concentrations during growth of the preovulatory follicle on embryo growth and pregnancy. The experiments reviewed herein demonstrate that estrus expression is associated positively with high pregnancy rates and reduced pregnancy losses in recipients receiving in vitroproduced and in vivo-derived frozen/thawed bovine embryos.
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