Intensified use of TAI and sexed semen on commercial farms
Márcio de Oliveira Marques, Fábio Morotti, Elis Lorenzetti, Camila Bizarro-Silva, Marcelo Marcondes Seneda
The livestock sector has achieved many technological advances, which have resulted in continued improvements in animal production systems and in the reproductive efficiency of herds. The associated use of reproductive biotechnology and genetic improvements combined with adequate sanitary and nutritional management are essential conditions for sustainable intensified animal production and financial autonomy within farms. Timed artificial insemination (TAI) represents one of the strategies with the greatest impact of expansion in providing genetic improvements and increased reproductive efficiency at a decreased cost. Despite the high proportion of cows receiving TAI, this market still exhibits considerable potential for expansion. After a TAI procedure, approximately 40 to 60% of females become pregnant. This result can vary depending on such factors as the hormonal protocol employed, female category, body condition score, ovarian status, farm management and aspects related to bulls and semen. The fertility and genetic quality of the bull plays an important role in the herd because a single bull can influence the entire production system. Another important strategy is the use of sex-sorted semen associated with TAI, primarily when associated with management practices to improve the pregnancy rate. This paper presents a review of the intensification of TAI, supplying practical information regarding the implementation of TAI commercial programs.
Alfieri AA, Alfieri AF. 2017. Infectious diseases that impact the bovine reproduction. Rev Bras Reprod Anim, 41:133-139.
Aono FH, Cooke RF, Alfieri AA, Vasconcelos JLM. 2013. Effects of vaccination against reproductive diseases on reproductive performance of beef cows submitted to fixed-timed AI in Brazilian cow-calf operations. Theriogenology, 79:242-248.
Associação Brasileira de Inseminação Artificial (ASBIA). 2017. [WWW Document]. Available on: http://www.asbia.org.br/novo/relatorios/.
Baruselli PS, Campos Filho EP, Crepaldi GA, Panazzolo SG, Zanatta GM, Colli MHA, Mingoti RD, Cruz GC, Penteado L, Castro MW. 2017a. New strategies to improve pregnancy rate at TAI using sex-sorted semen. Anim Reprod, 14:711. (Abstract).
Baruselli PS, Ferreira RM, Colli MHA, Elliff FM, Sá Filho MF, Vieira L, Freitas BG. 2017b. Timed artificial insemination: current challenges and recent advances in reproductive efficiency in beef and dairy herds in Brazil. Anim Reprod, 14:558-571.
Butler ST, Hutchinson IA, Cromie AR, Shalloo L. 2014. Applications and cost benefits of sexed semen in pasture-based dairy production systems. Animal, 8:165-172.
de Graaf S, Leahy T, Vishwanath R. 2014. Biological and practical lessons associated with the use of sexed semen. In: Juengel JL, Miyamoto A, Price C, Reynolds LP, Smith MF Webb R (Ed.). Reproduction in Domestic Ruminants VIII: 9th International Symposium on Reproduction in Domestic Ruminants, Obihiro City, Hokkaido, Japan. Packington,Leicestershire, UK: Context. pp.125-140.
DeJarnette JM, Nebel RL, Marshall CE. 2009. Evaluating the success of sex-sorted semen in US dairy herds from on farm records. Theriogenology, 71:49-58.
Ferreira LC, Cooke RF, Marques RS, Fernandes HJ, Fernandes CE, Stelato R, Franco GL, Lemos RA. 2016. Effects of vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus on reproductive performance of beef cows. J Anim Sci, 94:401-405.
Ferreira MCN, Miranda R, Figueiredo MA, Costa OM, Palhano HB. 2013. Impact of body condition on pregnancy rate of cows nellore under pasture in fixed time artificial insemination (tai) program. Semina Cienc Agrár, 34:1861-1868.
Fonseca VO, Crudeli GA, Costa e Silva EV. 1992. Aptidão reprodutiva de touros da raça Nelore: efeito das diferentes estações do ano sobre as características seminais circunferência escrotal e fertilidade. Arq Bras Med Vet Zootec, 44:7-15, 1992.
Garner DL. 2006. Flow cytometric sexing of mammalian sperm. Theriogenology, 65:943-957.
Houghton PL, Lemenager RP, Moss GE, Hendrix KS. 1990. Prediction of postpartum beef cow body composition using weight to height ratio and visual body condition score. J Anim Sci, 68:1428-1437.
Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). 2016. Produção da Pecuária Municipal. Rio de Janeiro: IBGE. Vol. 44, pp. 1-51.
Junqueira JRC, Alfieri AA. 2006. Reproductive failures in beef cattle breeding herds with emphasis for infectious causes. Semina Ciênc Agrár, 27:289-298.
Khodakaram-Tafi A, Ikede BO. 2005. A retrospective study of sporadic bovine abortions, stillbirths, and neonatal abnormalities in Atlantic Canada from 1990 to 2001. Canad Vet J, 46:635-637.
Marques MO, Morotti F, Silva CB, Ribeiro Júnior M, Silva RCP, Baruselli PS, Seneda MM. 2015. Influence of category−heifers, primiparous and multiparous lactating cows−in a large-scale resynchronization fixed-time artificial insemination program. J Vet Sci, 16:367-371
Marques MO, Colli MHA, Decuadro-Hansen G, Silva RCP, Ribeiro Júnior M, Caetano ZCP, Vieira LM, Baruselli PS. 2017. Twin pregnancy increases
gestational loss in Nelore heifers submitted to FTAI. Anim Reprod, 14:703. (Abstract).
McEwan B, Carman S. 2005. Animal health laboratory reports - cattle. Bovine abortion update, 1998-2004. Can Vet J, 46:46. (Abstract).
Morotti F, Sanches BV, Pontes JH, Basso AC, Siqueira ER, Lisboa LA, Seneda MM. 2014. Pregnancy rate and birth rate of calves from a large-scale IVF program using reverse-sorted semen in Bos indicus, Bos indicus-taurus, and Bos taurus cattle. Theriogenology, 81:696-701.
Pellegrino CA, Morotti F, Untura RM, Pontes JH, Pellegrino MF, Campolina JP, Seneda MM, Barbosa FA, Henry M. 2016. Use of sexed sorted semen for fixed-time artificial insemination or fixed-time embryo transfer of in vitro-produced embryos in cattle. Theriogenology, 86:888-893.
Pereira MHC, Cooke RF, Alfieri AA, Vasconcelos JLM. 2013. Effects of vaccination against reproductive diseases on reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows submitted to AI. Anim Reprod Sci, 137:156-162.
Pontes JH, Silva KC, Basso AC, Rigo AG, Ferreira CR, Santos GM, Sanches BV, Porcionato JP, Vieira PH, Faifer FS, Sterza FA, Schenk JL, Seneda MM. 2010. Large-scale in vitro embryo production and pregnancy rates from Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and indicus-taurus dairy cows using sexed sperm. Theriogenology, 74:1349-1355.
Pugliesi G, Rezende RG, da Silva JCB, Lopes E, Nishimura TK, Baruselli PS, Madureira H, Binelli M. 2017. Uso da ultrassonografia Doppler em programas de IATF e TETF em bovinos. Rev Bras Reprod Anim, 41:140-150.
Sá Filho MF, Penteado L, Reis EL, Reis TANPS, Galvão KN, Baruselli PS. 2013. Timed artificial insemination early in the breeding season improves the reproductive performance of suckled beef cows. Theriogenology, 79:625-632.
Sá Filho MF, Marques MO, Girotto R, Santos FA, Sala RV, Barbuio JP, Baruselli PS. 2014. Resynchronization with unknown pregnancy status using progestin-based timed artificial insemination protocol in beef cattle. Theriogenology, 81:284-290.
Schenk JL, Cran DG, Everett RW, Seidel GE Jr. 2009. Pregnancy rates in heifers and cows with cryopreserved sexed sperm: effects of sperm numbers per inseminate, sorting pressure and sperm storage before sorting. Theriogenology, 71:717-728.
Seidel GE Jr, Schenk JL, Herickhoff LA, Doyle SP, Brink Z, Green RD, Cran DG. 1999. Insemination of heifers with sexed sperm. Theriogenology, 52:1407-1420.
Seidel GE Jr, Schenk JL. 2008. Pregnancy rates in cattle with cryopreserved sexed sperm: effects of sperm numbers per inseminate and site of sperm deposition. Anim Reprod Sci, 105:129-138.
Smith MF, Perry GA, Atkins JA, Jinks EM, Pohler KG, Patterson DJ. 2012. Keys to a successful estrus synchronization and artificial insemination program. Am Red Angus Mag, 4:22-32.
Thomas JM, Locke JWC, Vishwanath R, Hall JB, Ellersieck MR, Smith MF, Patterson DJ. 2017. Effective use of SexedULTRA sex-sorted semen for timed artificial insemination of beef heifers. Theriogenology, 98:88-93.
Vasconcelos JLM, Demétrio DGB, Santos RM, Chiari JR, Rodrigues CA, Sá Filho OG. 2006. Factors potentially affecting fertility of lactating dairy cow recipients. Theriogenology, 65:192-200.
Vishwanath R, Moreno JF. 2018. Review: semen sexing - current state of the art with emphasis on bovine species. Animal, 12(suppl. 1):s85-s96.
Zangirolamo AF, Silva NC, Morotti F, Seneda MM. 2017. The impact of sanity on the fertility of cows submitted to reproductive biotechnics. Rev Acad Ciên Anim, 15:91-98.