Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy: An approach in reproductive medicine based on successful animal models
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been fully studied for different clinical applications in veterinary medicine for many years with promising results. As a result, therapeutic studies to elucidate pathways for PRP use in human reproduction have been performed. PRP applications in human reproductive medicine are recent, but the role of platelet growth factors in improving the endometrial environment is well known. Indications for PRP therapy show its positive effects in promoting endometrial and follicular growth and gestation in assisted reproduction cycles, as has been proven in animals. We summarized the putative role of PRP on endometrial receptivity with a brief history of promising results in research and clinical therapies.
Aghajanova L, Houshdaran S, Balayan S, Manvelyan S, Irwin JC, Huddleston HG, Giudice LC. 2018. In vitro evidence that platelet-rich plasma stimulates cellular processes involved in endometrial regeneration. J Assist Reprod Genet, 35:757-770.
Anitua E, Andia I, Ardanza B, Nurden P, Nurden AT. 2004. Autologous platelets as a source of proteins for healing and tissue regeneration. Thromb Haemost, 91:4-15.
Anitua E, Sánchez M, Del Mar ZM, De La Fuente M, Prado R, Orive G. 2009. Fibroblastic response to treatment with different preparations rich in growth factors. Cell Prolif, 42:162-170.
Barad DH, Yu Y, Kushnir VA, Shohat-Tal A, Lazzaroni E, Lee HJ, Gleicher N. 2014. A randomized clinical trial of endometrial perfusion with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in in vitro fertilization cycles: impact on endometrial thickness and clinical pregnancy rates. Fertil Steril, 101:710-705.
Bendinelli P, Matteucci E, Dogliotti G, Corsi MM, Banfi G, Maroni P. 2010. Molecular basis of anti-inflammatory action of platelet rich plasma on human chondrocytes: mechanisms of NF-kB inhibition via HGF. J Cell Physiol, 225:757-766.
Borrione P, Grasso L, Chierto E, Geuna S, Racca S, Abbadessa G, Ronchi G, Faiola F, Di Gianfrancesco A, Pigozzi F. 2014. Experimental model for the study of the effects of platelet-rich plasma on the early phases of muscle healing. Blood Transfus, 12:s221-s8.
Borrione P, Fagnani F, Di Gianfrancesco A, Mancini A, Pigozzi F, Pitsiladis Y. 2017. The role of platelet-rich plasma in muscle healing. Curr Sports Med Rep, 16:459-463.
Brossi PM, Moreira JJ, Machado TS, Baccarin RY. 2015. Platelet-rich plasma in orthopedic therapy: a comparative systematic review of clinical and experimental data in equine and human musculoskeletal lesions. BMC Vet Res, 11:98-148.
Bos-Mikich A, Oliveira RM, Frantz N. 2018. Platelet-rich plasma therapy and reproductive medicine. J Assist Reprod Genet, 35:753-756.
Carr BJ, Canapp SO, Mason DR, Cox C, Hess T. 2016. Canine platelet-rich plasma systems: a prospective analysis. Front Vet Sci, 2:73.
Chang Y, Li J, Chen Y, Wei L, Yang X, Shi Y, Liang X. 2015. Autologous platelet-rich plasma promotes endometrial growth and improves pregnancy outcome during in vitro fertilization. Int J Clin Exp Med, 8:1286-90.
Cho HS, Song LH, Park SY, Sung MC, Ahn MW, Song KE. 2011. Individual variation in growth factor concentrations in platelet-rich plasma and its influence on human mesenchymal stem cells. Korean J Lab Med, 31:212-218.
Coughlan C, Ledger W, Wang Q, Liu F, Demirol A, Gurgan T, Cutting R, Ong K, Sallam H, Li TC. 2014. Recurrent implantation failure: definition and management. Reprod Biomed Online, 28:14-38.
Denapoli PM, Stilhano RS, Ingham SJ, Han SW, Abdalla RJ. 2016. Platelet-rich plasma in a murine model: leukocytes, growth factors, Flt-1, and muscle healing. Am J Sports Med, 44:1962-1971.
Dimauro I, Grasso L, Fittipaldi S, Fantini C, Mercatelli N, Racca S, Geuna S, Di Gianfrancesco A, Caporossi D, Pigozzi F, Borrione P. 2014. Platelet-rich plasma and skeletal muscle healing: a molecular analysis of the early phases of the regeneration process in an experimental animal model. Plos One, 9:e102993.
Drengk A, Zapf A, Stürmer EK, Stürmer KM, Frosch KH. 2009. Influence of platelet-rich plasma on chondrogenic differentiation and proliferation of chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells. Cells Tissues Organs, 189:317-326.
Ehrenfest DM, Rasmusson L, Albrektsson T. 2009. Classification of platelet concentrates: from pure platelet-rich plasma (P-PRP) to leucocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF). Trends Biotechnol, 27:158-167.
Farimani M, Bahmanzadeh M, Poorolajal J. 2016. A new approach using autologous platelet-rich plasma to treat infertility and to improve population replacement rate. J Res Health Sci, 16:172-173.
Farimani M, Poorolajal J, Rabiee S, Bahmanzadeh M. 2017. Successful pregnancy and live birth after intrauterine administration of autologous platelet-rich plasma in a woman with recurrent implantation failure: A case report. Int J Reprod BioMed, 15:803-806.
Fourichon C, Seegers H, Malher X. 2000. Effect of disease on reproduction in the dairy cow: a meta-analysis. Theriogenology, 53:1729-1759.
Frye CW, Enders A, Brooks MB, Struble AM, Wakshlag JJ. 2016. Assessment of canine autologous platelet-rich plasma produced with a commercial centrifugation and platelet recovery kit. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol, 29:14-19.
Gargett CE, Chan RW, Schwab KE. 2008. Hormone and growth factor signaling in endometrial renewal: role of stem/progenitor cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol, 288:22-29.
Giraldo CE, Alvarez ME, Carmona JU. 2015. Effects of sodium citrate and acid citrate dextrose solutions on cell counts and growth factor release from equine pure-platelet rich plasma and pure-platelet rich gel. BMC Vet Res, 11:60.
Graziani F, Ivanovski S, Cei S, Ducci F, Tonetti M, Gabriele M. 2005. The in vitro effect of different concentrations on osteoblasts and fibroblasts. Clin Oral Implants Res, 16:456-460.
Gutiérrez CM, López C, Giraldo CE, Carmona JU. 2017. Study of a two-step centrifugation protocol for concentrating cells and growth factors in bovine platelet-rich plasma. Vet Med Int, 2017:1-8.
Hammond JW, Hinton RY, Curl LA, Muriel JM, Lovering RM. 2009. Use of autologous platelet-rich plasma to treat muscle strain injuries. Am J Sports Med, 37:1135-1142.
Hauschild G, Geburek F, Gosheger G. 2017. Short term storage stability at room temperature of two different platelet-rich plasma preparations from equine donors and potential impact on growth factor concentrations. BMC Vet Res, 13:7.
Hessel LN, Bosch G, Weeren PR, Ionita JC. 2015. Equine autologous platelet concentrates: a comparative study between different available systems. Equine Vet J, 47:319-325.
Jang HY, Myoung SM, Choe JM, Kim T, Cheon YP, Kim YM, Park H. 2017. Effects of autologous platelet-rich plasma on regeneration of damaged endometrium in female rats. Yonsei Med J, 58:1195-1203.
Kasius A, Smit JG, Torrance HL, Eijkemans MJ, Mol BW, Opmeer BC, Broekmans FJ. 2014. Endometrial thickness and pregnancy rates after IVF: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update, 20:530-541.
Kingsley CS. 1954. Blood coagulation; evidence of an antagonist to factor VI in platelet-rich human plasma. Nature, 173:723-724.
Koot YE, Boomsma CM, Eijkemans MJ, Lentjes EG, Macklon NS. 2011. Recurrent pre-clinical pregnancy loss is unlikely to be a ‘cause’ of unexplained infertility. Hum Reprod, 26:2636-2641.
Kunicki M, Lukaszuk K, Woclawek-Potocka I, Liss J, Kulwikowska P, Szczyptańska J. 2014. Evaluation of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor effects on treatment-resistant thin endometrium in women undergoing in vitro fertilization. Biomed Res Int, 2014:1-5.
Lange-Consiglio A, Cazzaniga N, Garlappi R, Spelta C, Pollera C, Perrini C, Cremonesi, F. 2015. Platelet concentrate in bovine reproduction: effects on in vitro embryo production and after intrauterine administration in repeat breeder cows. Reprod Biol Endocrin, 13:65.
Lange-Consiglio A, Spelta C, Garlappi R, Luini M, Cremonesi F. 2014. Intramammary administration of platelet concentrate as an unconventional therapy in bovine mastitis: first clinical application. J Dairy Sci, 97:6223-6230.
Larson R, Ignotz G, Currie W. 1992. Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulates development of bovine embryos during the fourth cell cycle. Development, 115:821-826.
Levin RH, Freireich EJ. 1964. Effect of storage up to 48 hours on response to transfusions of platelet rich plasma. Transfusion, 4:251-256.
Li H, Hicks JJ, Wang L, Oyster N, Philippon MJ, Hurwitz S, Hogan MV, Huard J. 2016. Customized platelet-rich plasma with transforming growth factor beta1 neutralization antibody to reduce fibrosis in skeletal muscle. Biomaterials, 87:147-156.
Marini MG, Perrini C, Esposti P, Corradetti B, Bizzaro D, Riccaboni P, Fantinato E, Urbani G, Gelati G, Cremonesi F, Lange-Consiglio A. 2016. Effects of platelet-rich plasma in a model of bovine endometrial inflammation in vitro. Reprod Biol Endocrin, 14:1-17.
Martins RP, Hartmann DD, de Moraes JP, Soares FA, Puntel GO. 2016. Platelet-rich plasma reduces the oxidative damage determined by a skeletal muscle contusion in rats. Platelets, 27:784-790.
Matsumoto H, Nasu K, Nishida M, Ito H, Bing S, Miyakawa I. 2005. Regulation of proliferation, motility, and contractility of human endometrial stromal cells by platelet-derived growth factor. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 90:3560-3567.
Mazzocca AD, McCarthy MB, Chowaniec DM, Dugdale EM, Hansen D, Cote MP. 2012. The positive effects of different platelet-rich plasma methods on human muscle, bone, and tendon cells. Am J Sports Med, 40:1742-1749.
Molina A, Sánchez J, Sánchez W, Vielma W. 2018. Platelet-rich plasma as an adjuvant in the endometrial preparation of patients with refractory endometrium. JBRA Assisted Reproduction, 22:42-48.
Notodihardjo PV, Morimoto N, Kakudo N, Kakudo N, Matsui M, Sakamoto M, Liem PH, Suzuki K, Tabata Y, Kusumoto K. 2015. Gelatin hydrogel impregnated with platelet-rich plasma releasate promotes angiogenesis and wound healing in murine model. J Artif Organs, 18:64-71.
Ohl J, Lefèbvre-Maunoury C, Wittemer C, Nisand G, Laurent MC, Hoffmann P. 2002. Nitric oxide donors for patients undergoing IVF. A prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Hum Reprod, 17:2615-2620.
Pinheiro CL, Peixinho CC, Esposito CC, Manso JE, Machado JC. 2016. Ultrasound biomicroscopy and claudication test for in vivo follow-up of muscle repair enhancement based on platelet-rich plasma therapy in a rat model of gastrocnemius laceration. Acta Cir Bras, 31:103-110.
Rinnovati R, Romagnoli N, Gentilini F, Lambertini C, Spadari A. 2016. The influence of environmental variables on platelet concentration in horse platelet-rich plasma. Acta Vet Scand, 58:45.
Scala M, Lenarduzzi S, Spagnolo F. 2014. Regenerative medicine for the treatment of Teno-desmic injuries of the equine. A series of 150 horses treated with platelet-derived growth factors. In Vivo, 6:1119-11124.
Scully D, Naseem KM, Matsakas A. 2018. Platelet biology in regenerative medicine of skeletal muscle. Acta Physyol, 223:e13071.
Sheldon IM, Cronin J, Goetze L, Donofrio G, Schub
HJ. 2009. Defining postpartum uterine disease and the mechanisms of infection and immunity in the female reproductive tract in Cattle. Reprod Biol Endocrinol, 81:1025-1032.
Sills SE, Rickers NS, Li X, Palermo GD. 2018. First data on in vitro fertilization and blastocyst formation after intraovarian injection of calcium gluconate-activated autologous platelet rich plasma. Gynecol Endocrinol, 28:1-5.
Silva RF, Carmona JU, Rezende CM. 2013. Intra-articular injections of autologous platelet concentrates in dogs with surgical reparation of cranial cruciate ligament rupture. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol, 26:285-290.
Silva RF, Carmona JU, Rezende CM. 2012. Comparison of the effect of calcium gluconate and batroxobin on the release of transforming growth factor beta 1 in canine platelet concentrates. BMC Vet Res, 8:121.
Singh N, Mohanty S, Seth T, Shankar M, Bhaskaran S, Dharmendra S. 2014. Autologous stem cell transplantation in refractory Asherman’s syndrome: A novel cell based therapy. J Hum Reprod Sci, 7:93-98.
Velasco JA, Acevedo B, Alvarez C, Alvarez M, Bellver J, Fontes J, Landeras J, Manau D, Martinez F, Muñoz E, Robles A, Rodriguez-Tabernero L. 2016. Strategies to manage refractory endometrium: state of the art in 2016. Reprod BioMed Online, 32:474-489.
Vilar JM, Morales M, Santana A. 2013. Controlled, blinded force platformanalysis of the effect of intraarticular injection of autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells associated to PRGF-Endoret in osteoarthritic dogs. BMC Vet Res, 9:131.
Zadehmodarres S, Salehpour S, Saharkhiz N, Nazari L. 2017. Treatment of thin endometrium with autologous platelet-rich plasma: a pilot study. JBRA Assisted Reproduction, 21:54-56.