Endocrine and metabolic differences between Bos taurus and Bos indicus cows and implications for reproductive management
Based on the considerable differences in ovarian morphology and function, as well as circulating hormones and metabolites between Bos indicus (B. indicus) and Bos taurus (B. taurus), researchers are using this acquired knowledge to optimize protocols for fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI), and production of in vivo derived embryos by multiple ovulation or by in vitro embryo production (IVP). In B. indicus, at the time of follicle deviation, the dominant follicle is smaller and acquires ovulatory capacity at a smaller diameter than B. taurus. Moreover, despite ovulating smaller follicles and having smaller corpora lutea (CL), circulating concentrations of estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) are greater in B. indicus than B. taurus. These physiological differences may be related to greater circulating cholesterol, insulin and IGF1 in B. indicus than in B. taurus. For both genetic groups there is a negative relationship between circulating P4 and ovulatory response to the first GnRH treatment of a fixed-time AI (FTAI) protocol. Moreover, despite lower clearance rates of steroid hormones in B. indicus than B. taurus, the dose of 2 mg estradiol benzoate seems to be the most effective either for Nelore (B. indicus beef), Angus (B. taurus beef), or Holstein (B. taurus dairy) cows at the initiation of an E2/P4-based FTAI protocol to optimize synchronization and pregnancy per AI (P/AI). Several studies have shown that only one recommended dose of PGF2α at a FTAI protocol may be insufficient for adequate luteolysis in B. indicus and B. taurus. When submitted to multiple ovulation and embryo transfer, B. indicus cows and heifers need less FSH than B. taurus to achieve superovulation. Moreover, IVP has been more successful in B. indicus than B. taurus due to greater antral follicle count and anti-mullerian hormone, and better oocyte quality.
artificial insemination, embryo transfer, Holstein, hormone, metabolism, Nelore.