Animal Reproduction (AR)
Animal Reproduction (AR)
Original Article

Effects of blood β-hydroxybutyric acid levels on the response to Ovsynch in primiparous cows

Seckin Salar, Ayhan Bastan

Downloads: 0
Views: 652


The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low and moderate blood β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) levels in primiparous cows during the early postpartum period on follicle development and pregnancy rate after the Ovsynch protocol. Holstein primiparous cows with low (n = 85) and moderate (n = 71) BHBA concentrations were used as experimental animals. At 7- 8 weeks postpartum, blood samples were collected and the Ovsynch protocol was performed on the same day. Ultrasonographic examination was performed to determine the dominant follicle (DF) diameter and presence of corpus luteum on the day of the first and second gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH1 and GnRH2) injections and prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2α) injection as well as 24 and 48 h after the GnRH1 and PGF2α injections. The ovulatory response to GnRH1 and pregnancy rate at day 30 and day 60 postinsemination were also evaluated. No significant differences were observed between groups in the DF diameter on the day of GnRH1 and PGF2α injections, and at 24 and 48 h after these injections, as well as in the ovulation and atresia response to GnRH1 (P > 0.05). Significant differences were observed between groups in DF diameter (low-BHBA group, 13.8 ± 0.2 mm; moderate-BHBA group, 13.2 ± 0.2 mm; P = 0.039) at the time of insemination, and in pregnancy rates at 30 days (low-BHBA group, 38.82%; moderate-BHBA group, 21.13%, P = 0.017) and 60 days after insemination (37.6 and 18.3%, respectively; P = 0.008). Our findings suggest that moderate blood levels of BHBA (0.80-1.19 mmol/L) in primiparous cows during the early postpartum period affect the response to the Ovsynch protocol.


β-hydroxybutyric acid, cow, follicle diameter, ovsynch, pregnancy rate.


Barrett DC, Boyd H, Mihm M. 2004. Failure to conceive and embryonic loss. In: Andrews AH, Blowey RW, Boyd H, Eddy RG (Ed.). Bovine Medicine: diseases and husbandry of cattle. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 552-576.

Butler ST, Pelton SH, Butler WR. 2006. Energy balance, metabolic status, and the first postpartum ovarian follicle wave in cows administered propylene glycol. J Dairy Sci, 89:2938-2951.

Butler W. 2003. Energy balance relationships with follicular development, ovulation and fertility in postpartum dairy cows. Livest Prod Sci, 83:211-218.

Butler W. 2005. Inhibition of ovulation in the postpartum cow and the lactating sow. Livest Prod Sci, 98:5-12.

Cartmill J, El-Zarkouny S, Hensley B, Lamb G, Stevenson J. 2001. Stage of cycle, incidence, and timing of ovulation, and pregnancy rates in dairy cattle after three timed breeding protocols. J Dairy Sci, 84:1051-1059.

Cummins S, Lonergan P, Evans A, Butler ST. 2012. Genetic merit for fertility traits in Holstein cows: II. Ovarian follicular and corpus luteum dynamics, reproductive hormones, and estrus behavior. J Dairy Sci, 95:3698-3710.

Diskin MG, Mackey DR, Roche JF, Sreenan JM. 2003. Effects of nutrition and metabolic status on circulating hormones and ovarian follicle development in cattle. Anim Reprod Sci, 78:345-370.

Erb H, Gröhn Y. 1988. Epidemiology of metabolic disorders in the periparturient dairy cow. J Dairy Sci, 71:2557-2571.

Galvão K, Santos J. 2010. Factors affecting synchronization and conception rate after the Ovsynch protocol in lactating Holstein cows. Reprod Domest Anim, 45:439-446.

Garverick H, Harris M, Vogel-Bluel R, Sampson J, Bader J, Lamberson W, Spain J, Lucy M, Youngquist R. 2013. Concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and glucose in blood of periparturient dairy cows are indicative of pregnancy success at first insemination. J Dairy Sci, 96:181-188.

Gilmore H, Young F, Patterson D, Wylie A, Law R, Kilpatrick D, Elliott C, Mayne C. 2011. An evaluation of the effect of altering nutrition and nutritional strategies in early lactation on reproductive performance and estrous behavior of high-yielding Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. J Dairy Sci, 94:3510-3526.

Gröhn Y, Rajala-Schultz P. 2000. Epidemiology of reproductive performance in dairy cows. Anim Reprod Sci, 60:605-614.

Gümen A, Guenther J, Wiltbank M. 2003. Follicular size and response to Ovsynch versus detection of estrus in anovular and ovular lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci, 86:3184-3194.

Hayırlı A, Çolak A. 2011. İneklerin kuru ve geçiş dönemlerinde sevk-idare ve besleme stratejileri: postpartum süreçte metabolik profil, sağlık durumu ve fertiliteye etkisi. Turkiye Klinikleri J Vet Sci, 2:1-35.

Homer E, Gao Y, Meng X, Dodson A, Webb R, Garnsworthy P. 2013. Technical note: a novel approach to the detection of estrus in dairy cows using ultra-wideband technology. J Dairy Sci, 96:6529-6534.

Huszenicza G, Molnár L, Solti L, Haraszti J. 1987. Postpartal ovarian function in Holstein and crossbred cows on large scale farms in Hungary. J Vet Med A, 34:249-263.

Iwersen M, Falkenberg U, Voigtsberger R, Forderung D, Heuwieser W. 2009. Evaluation of an electronic cowside test to detect subclinical ketosis in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci, 92:2618-2624.

Jeengar K, Chaudhary V, Kumar A, Raiya S, Gaur M, Purohit GN. 2014. Ovarian cysts in dairy cows: old and new concepts for definition, diagnosis and therapy. Anim Reprod, 11:63-73.

Kasimanickam R. 2014. Pharmacological intervention of estrous cycles. In: Hopper RM (Ed.). Bovine Reproduction. Hoboken NJ: Wiley/Blackwell. pp. 304- 313.

Keskin A, Yilmazbas-Mecitoglu G, Gumen A, Karakaya E, Celik Y, Okut H, Wiltbank M. 2011. Comparison of responses to Ovsynch between HolsteinFriesian and Swedish Red cows. J Dairy Sci, 94:1784- 1789.

Leroy J, Vanholder T, Opsomer G, Van Soom A, Kruif A. 2006. The in vitro development of bovine oocytes after maturation in glucose and β‐hydroxybutyrate concentrations associated with negative energy balance in dairy cows. Reprod Domest Anim, 41:119-123.

Lopez H, Satter LD, Wiltbank MC. 2004. Relationship between level of milk production and estrous behavior of lactating dairy cows. Anim Reprod Sci, 81:209-223.

Lucy MC, Savio JD, Badinga L, De La Sota RL, Thatcer WW. 1992. Factors that affect ovarian follicular dynamics in cattle. J Anim Sci, 70:3615-3626.

Lucy MC. 2008. Functional differences in the growth hormone and insulin‐like growth factor axis in cattle and pigs: implications for post‐partum nutrition and reproduction. Reprod Domest Anim, 43:31-39.

Mahrt A, Burfeind O, Heuwieser W. 2014. Effects of time and sampling location on concentrations of βhydroxybutyric acid in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci, 97:291- 298.

Marr AL, Piepenbrink MS, Overton TR, Lucy MC, Butler WR. 2002. The somatotrophic axis and lipid metabolism in transition dairy cows in relation to timing of first postpartum ovulation. J Dairy Sci, 85(suppl. 1):66. (abstract).

Meikle A, Kulcsar M, Chilliard Y, Febel H, Delavaud C, Cavestany D, Chilibroste P. 2004. Effects of parity and body condition at parturition on endocrine and reproductive parameters of the cow. Reproduction, 127:727-737.

Moreira F, De la Sota R, Diaz T, Thatcher W. 2000. Effect of day of the estrous cycle at the initiation of a timed artificial insemination protocol on reproductive responses in dairy heifers. J Anim Sci, 78:1568-1576.

National Research Council (NRC). 2001. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 7th ed. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 408 pp. Ospina P, Nydam D, Stokol T, Overton T. 2010a.

Association between the proportion of sampled transition cows with increased nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate and disease incidence, pregnancy rate, and milk production at the herd level. J Dairy Sci, 93:3595-3601.

Ospina P, Nydam D, Stokol T, Overton T. 2010b. Associations of elevated nonesterified fatty acids and βhydroxybutyrate concentrations with early lactation reproductive performance and milk production in transition dairy cattle in the northeastern United States. J Dairy Sci, 93:1596-1603.

Pursley J, Mee M, Wiltbank M. 1995. Synchronization of ovulation in dairy cows using PGF 2α and GnRH. Theriogenology, 44:915-923.

Ribeiro E, Galvão K, Thatcher W, Santos J. 2012. Economic aspects of applying reproductive technologies to dairy herds. Anim Reprod, 9:370-387.

Roche J, Mackey D, Diskin M. 2000. Reproductive management of postpartum cows. Anim Reprod Sci, 60:703-712.

Rutherford AJ, Oikonomou G, Smith RF. 2016. The effect of subclinical ketosis on activity at estrus and reproductive performance in dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci, 99:4808-4815.

Sangsritavong S, Combs DK, Sartori R, Armentano LE, Wiltbank MC. 2002. High feed intake increases liver blood flow and metabolism of progesterone and estradiol-17beta in dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci, 85:2831- 2842.

Santos J, Juchem S, Cerri R, Galvao K, Chebel R, Thatcher W, Dei C, Bilby C. 2004. Effect of bST and reproductive management on reproductive performance of Holstein dairy cows. J Dairy Sci, 87:868-881.

Sartori R, Fricke PM, Ferreira JC, Ginther O, Wiltbank MC. 2001. Follicular deviation and acquisition of ovulatory capacity in bovine follicles. Biol Reprod, 65:1403-1409.

Souza A, Ayres H, Ferreira R, Wiltbank M. 2008. A new presynchronization system (Double-Ovsynch) increases fertility at first postpartum timed AI in lactating dairy cows. Theriogenology, 70:208-215.

Tenhagen BA, Surholt R, Wittke M, Vogel C, Drillich M, Heuwieser W. 2004. Use of Ovsynch in dairy herds-differences between primiparous and multiparous cows. Anim Reprod Sci, 81:1-11.

Vanholder T, Leroy J, Soom A, Coryn M, Kruif A, Opsomer G. 2006. Effects of β‐OH Butyrate on bovine granulosa and theca cell function in vitro. Reprod Domest Anim, 41:39-40.

Vasconcelos J, Silcox R, Rosa G, Pursley J, Wiltbank M. 1999. Synchronization rate, size of the ovulatory follicle, and pregnancy rate after synchronization of ovulation beginning on different days of the estrous cycle in lactating dairy cows. Theriogenology, 52:1067- 1078.

Walsh R, Walton J, Kelton D, LeBlanc S, Leslie K, Duffield T. 2007. The effect of subclinical ketosis in early lactation on reproductive performance of postpartum dairy cows. J Dairy Sci, 90:2788-2796.

Wathes DC, Fenwick M, Cheng Z, Bourne N, Llewellyn S, Morris DG, Kenny D, Murphy J, Fitzpatrick R. 2007. Influence of negative energy balance on cyclicity and fertility in the high producing dairy cow. Theriogenology, 68:S232-S241.

Webb R, Garnsworthy PC, Gong JG, Armstrong DG. 2004. Control of follicular growth: Local interactions and nutritional influences. J Anim Sci, 82:E63-64.

Williams S, Stanko R, Amstalden M, Williams G. 2002. Comparison of three approaches for synchronization of ovulation for timed artificial insemination in Bos indicus-influenced cattle managed on the Texas gulf coast. J Anim Sci, 80:1173-1178.

5b731e340e8825f21f8068a8 animreprod Articles
Links & Downloads

Anim Reprod

Share this page
Page Sections