Intensive use of IVF by large-scale dairy programs
The number of embryos produced by in vitro fertilization (IVF) has grown exponentially in recent years. Recently, for the first time, the number of embryos produced and transferred in vitro was significantly higher than the number developed in vivo worldwide. In this context, a particular boost occurred with ovum pick-up (OPU) and in vitro embryos produced in North America, and this technology is becoming more prominent for commercial dairy farms. However, despite many advances in recent decades, laboratories and companies are looking for methods and alternatives that can be used in collaboration with the existing process to improve it. Among the strategies used to improve the dairy industry are the use of genomic analysis for the selection of animals with desired traits or as an evaluation tool of oocyte and embryo quality, the optimization of the collection and use of gametes from prepubertal females and males, the effective use of sexed semen, and improvements in culture media and methods of embryo cryopreservation. Thus, this review aims to discuss the highlights of the commercial use of IVF and some strategies to increase the application of this technique in large-scale dairy programs.
Aikman PC, Reynolds CK, Beever DE. 2007. Diet digestibility, rate of passage, and eating and rumination behavior of jersey and holstein cows. J Dairy Sci, 91:1103-1114.
Baldassarre H, Bordignon V. 2018. Laparoscopic ovum pick-up for in vitro embryo production from dairy bovine and buffalo calves. Anim Reprod, 15:191-196.
Baldassarre H, Currin L, Michalovic L, Bellefleur A, Gutierrez K, Mondadori RG, Glanzner WG, Schuermann Y, Bohrer RC, Dicks N, Lopez R, Grand FX, Vigneault C, Blondin P, Gourdon J, Bordignon V. 2018. The interval of gonadotropin administration for in vitro embryo production from oocytes collected from Holstein calves between 2 and 6 months of age by repeated laparoscopy. Theriogenology, 116:64-70.
Batista EOS, Guerreiro BM, Freitas BG, Silva JCB, Vieira LM, Ferreira RM, Rezende RG, Basso AC, Lopes RNVR, Rennó FP, Souza AH, Baruselli PS. 2016. Plasma anti-Müllerian hormone as a predictive endocrine marker to select Bos taurus (Holstein) and Bos indicus (Nelore) calves for in vitro embryo production. Domest Anim Endocrinol, 54:1-9.
Bilodeau-Goeseels S. 2012. Bovine oocyte meiotic inhibition before in vitro maturation and its value to in vitro embryo production: Does it improve developmental competence? Reprod Domest Anim, 47:687-93.
Blondin P, Bousquet D, Twagiramungu H, Barnes F, Sirard MA. 2002. Manipulation of follicular development to produce developmentally competent bovine oocytes. Biol Reprod, 66:38-43.
Cavalieri FLB, Morotti F, Seneda MM, Colombo AHB, Andreazzi MA, Emanuelli IP, Rigolon LP. 2018. Improvement of bovine in vitro embryo production by ovarian follicular wave synchronization prior to ovum pick-up. Theriogenology, 57:70-117.
Cognie Y, Poulin N, Locatelli Y, Mermillod P. 2004. State-of-the-art production, conservation and transfer of in-vitro-produced embryos in small ruminants. Reprod Fertil Dev, 16:437-445.
Cottle DJ, Wallace M, Lonergan P, Fahey AG. 2018. Bioeconomics of sexed semen utilization in a high-producing Holstein-Friesian dairy herd. J Dairy Sci, 101: 4498-4512.
Council on Dairy Cattle Breeding. 2016. Genotypes Included in Evaluations by Breed, Chip Density, Presence of Phenotypes (Old vs. Young), and Evaluation Year-Month (Cumulative). Bowie, MD: Council Dairy Cattle Breed. https://www.cdcb.us/ Genotype/cur_density.html.
Currin L, Michalovic L, Bellefleur AM, Gutierrez K, Glanzner W, Schuermann Y, Bohrer RC, Dicks N, da Rosa PR, De Cesaro MP, Lopez R, Grand FX, Vigneault C, Blondin P, Gourdon J, Baldassarre H, Bordignon V. 2017. The effect of age and length of gonadotropin stimulation on the in vitro embryo development of Holstein calf oocytes. Theriogenology, 104:87-93.
Dode MAN, Leme LO, Spricigo JFW. 2013. Criopreservação de embriões bovinos produzidos in vitro. Rev Bras Reprod Anim, 37:145-150.
Fall N, Forslund K, Emanuelson U. 2008. Reproductive performance, general health, and longevity of dairy cows at a Swedish research farm with both organic and conventional production. Livest Sci, 118:11-19.
Hansen P. 2014. Current and Future Assisted Reproductive Technologies for Mammalian Farm Animals. Adv Exp Med Biol, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 752:1-22.
Hendriksen PJ, Vos PL, STeenweg WN, Bevers MM, DIeleman SJ. 2000. Bovine follicular development and its effect on the in vitro competence of oocytes. Theriogenology, 53:11-20.
Holden SA, Butler ST. 2018. Review: Applications and benefits of sexed semen in dairy and beef herds. Animal, 12(s1):s97-s103
Landry DA, Bellefleur AM, Labrecque R, Grand FX, Vi- gneault C, Blondin P, Sirard MA. 2016. Effect of cow age on the in vitro developmental competence of oocytes obtained after FSH stimulation and coasting treatments. Theriogenology, 86:1240-1246.
Liu W, Liu J, Du H, Ling J, Sun X, Chen D. 2017. Non-invasive preimplantation aneuploidy screening and diagnosis of beta thalassemiaIVSII654 mutation using spent embryo culture medium. Ann Med, 49:319-328.
Lonergan P, Monaghan P, Rizos D, Boland MP, Gordon I. 1994. Effect of follicle size on bovine oocyte quality and developmental competence following maturation, fertilization, and culture in vitro. Mol Reprod Dev, 37:48-53.
Lonergan P, Fair T. 2016. Maturation of Oocytes in vitro. Annu Rev Anim Biosci, 4:10.1-10.14.
Lonergan P, Fair T, Forde N, Rizos D. 2016. Embryo development in dairy cattle. Theriogenology, 86:270-277.
Matoba S, Yoshioka H, Matsuda H, Sugimura S, Aikawa Y, Ohtake M, Hashiyada Y, Seta T, Nakagawa K, Lonergan P. 2014. Optimizing production of in vivo-matured oocytes from superstimulated Holstein cows for in vitro production of embryos using X-sorted sperm. J Dairy Sci, 97:743-753.
Moore SG, Hasler JF. 2017. A 100-Year Review: Reproductive technologies in dairy science. J Dairy Sci, 100:10314-10331.
Morotti F, Sanches B, Pontes J, Basso A, Siqueira E, Lisboa L, Seneda M. 2014. Pregnancy rate and birth rate of calves from a large-scale IVF program using reverse-sorted semen in Bos indicus, Bos indicus-taurus, and Bos taurus cattle. Theriogenology, 81:696-701.
Nivet A-L, Bunel A, Labrecque R, Belanger J, Vigneault C, Blondin P, Sirard M.A. 2012. FSH withdrawal improves developmental competence of oocytes in the bovine model. Reproduction, 143:165-171.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). 2018. Agricultural Outlook 2018-2027: Dairy and dairy products. 2018:29pp.
Paschoal DM, Sudano MJ, Schwarz KRL, Maziero RRD, Guastali MD, Crocomo LF, Magalhães LCO, Martins Jr, A, Leal ALV, Landim-Alvarenga FC. 2017. Cell apoptosis and lipid content of in vitro-produced, vitrified bovine embryos treated with forskolin. Theriogenology, 87:108-114.
Pieterse MC, Vos PL, Kruip TA, Wurth YA, van Beneden TH, Willemse AH, Taverne MA. 1991. Transvaginal ultrasound guided follicular aspiration of bovine oocytes. Theriogenology, 35:857-862.
Ponsart C, Le BD, Knijn H, Fritz S, Guyader-Joly C, Otter T, Lacaze S, Charreaux F, Schibler L, Dupassieux D, Mullaart E. 2013. Reproductive technologies and genomic selection in dairy cattle. Reprod Fertil Dev, 26:12-21.
Rizos D, Ward F, Duffy P, Boland MP, Lonergan P. 2002. Consequences of bovine oocyte maturation, fertilization or early embryo development in vitro versus in vivo: implications for blastocyst yield and blastocyst quality. Mol Reprod Dev, 61:234-48.
Sanches BV, Marinho LSR, Filho BDO, Pontes JHF, Basso AC, Meirinhos MLG, Silva-Santos KC, Ferreira CR, Seneda MM. 2013. Cryosurvival and pregnancy rates after exposure of IVF-derived Bos indicus embryos to 17 forskolin before vitrification. Theriogenology, 80:372-377.
Sanches BV, Lunardelli PA, Tannura JH, Cardoso BL, Pereira MHC, Gaitkoski G, Basso AC, Arnold DR, Seneda MM. 2016. A new direct transfer protocol for cryopreserved IVF embryos. Theriogenology, 85:1147-1151.
Sanches BV, Zangirolamo AF, Silva NC, Morotti F, Seneda MM. 2017. Cryopreservation of in vitro-produced embryos: challenges for commercial implementation. Anim Reprod, 14:521-527.
Sanchez F, Smitz J. 2012. Molecular control of oogenesis. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1822:1896-1912.
Seidel Jr, GE. 2014. Update on sexed semen technology in cattle. Animal, 8:160-164.
Smith HL, Stevens A, Minogue B, Sneddon S, Shaw L, Wood L , Adeniyi T, Xiao H, Lio P, Kimber SJ, Brison DR. 2019. Systems based analysis of human embryos and gene networks involved in cell lineage allocation. BMC Genomics, 20:171.
Sirard M. 2018. 40 years of bovine IVF in the new genomic selection context. Reproduction, 156:R1-R7.
Sudano MJ, Paschoal DM, Rascado TD, Magalhaes LCO, Crocomo LF, Lima-Neto JF, Landim-Alvarenga FD. 2011. Lipid content and apoptosis of in vitro-produced bovine embryos as determinants of susceptibility to vitrification. Theriogenology, 75:1211-1220.
Vajta G, Kuwayama M. 2006. Improving cryopreservation systems. Theriogenology, 65:236-244.
VanRaden PM. 2017. Net merit as a measure of lifetime profit: 2017 revision. AIP Research Report, NM$6:2-17.
VanRaden PM. 2018. Net merit as a measure of lifetime profit: 2018 revision. AIP Research Report, 7:5-18.
Viana JHM. 2017. Statistics of embryo collection and transfer in domestic farm animals. Embryo Transfer. Newsletter, 36:08-25.
Viana JHM, Figueiredo ACV, Gonçalves RLR, Siqueira LGB. 2018. A historical perspective of embryo-related technologies in South America. Anim Reprod, 15:963- 970.
Voelkel SA, Hu YX. 1992. Direct transfer of frozen-thawed bovine embryos. Theriogenology, 37:23-37.
Wiggans GR, Cole JB, Hubbard SM, Sonstegard TS. 2017. Genomic Selection in Dairy Cattle: The USDA Experience. Ann Rev Anim Biosci, 5:13.1-13.19.
Wit AAC, Wurth YA, Kruip AM. 2000. Effect of ovarian and follicle quality on morphology and developmental capacity of the bovine cumulus-oocyte complex. J Anim Sci, 78:1277-1283.