Sanitary program to reduce embryonic mortality associated with infectious diseases in cattle
Among reproductive disorders in dairy and beef cattle worldwide, embryonic mortalities stand out as one of the most frequent. Because of the multifactorial etiology, the clinical and laboratory diagnoses of embryonic mortality causes in cattle are quite complex. Often, infectious causes may account for up to 50% of bovine embryonic mortality rates after 30 days of conception. This review will address the main causes of early and late embryonic mortality, with emphasis on infectious causes and, particularly, those more frequent in the Brazilian cattle herds. In addition, we will discuss ways of controlling and prophylaxis including those related to reproductive and sanitary management, with emphasis on immunoprophylaxis of the three most frequent reproductive infectious diseases in Brazilian dairy and beef cattle herds.
Abdalla H, Elghafghuf A, Elsohaby I, Nasr MAF. 2017. Maternal and non-maternal factors associated with late embryonic and early fetal losses in dairy cows. Theriogenology, 15(100):16-23.
Adler B. 2015. History of leptospirosis and leptospira. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol, 387:1-9.
Alfieri AA, Alfieri AF. 2017. Infectious diseases that impact the bovine reproduction [In Portuguese]. Rev Bras Reprod Anim, 41(1):133-9.
Almería S, López-Gatius F. 2013. Bovine neosporosis: clinical and practical aspects. Res Vet Sci, 95(2):303-309.
Aono FH, Cooke RF, Alfieri AA, Vasconcelos JL. 2013. Effects of vaccination against reproductive diseases on reproductive performance of beef cows submitted to fixed-timed AI in Brazilian cow-calf operations. Theriogenology, 79(2):242-248.
Ayalon N. 1978. A review of embryonic mortality in cattle. J Reprod Fert, 54: 483-493.
Balamurugan V, Alamuri A, Bharathkumar K, Patil SS, Govindaraj GN, Nagalingam M, Krishnamoorthy P, Rahman H, Shome BR. 2018. Prevalence of Leptospira serogroup-specific antibodies in cattle associated with reproductive problems in endemic states of India. Trop Animal Health Prod, 50(5):1131-1138.
Berge AC, Vertenten G. 2017. Whitepaper: The importance of preventive health and vaccination programmes in ruminant production. Available from https://www.timetovaccinate.com/. Accessed in: July 7th. 2019.
Bielanski A, Devenish J, Phipps-Todd B. 2000. Effect of Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma bovigenitalium in semen on fertilization and association with in vitro produced morula and blastocyst stage embryos. Theriogenology, 53(6):1213-1223.
Biswas S, Bandyopadhyay S, Dimri U, Patra PH. 2013. Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) - a re-emerging concern in livestock: a revisit to its biology, epidemiology, diagnosis, and prophylaxis. Vet J, 33(2):68-81.
Butler WR. 2003. Energy balance relationships with follicular development, ovulation and fertility in postpartum dairy cows. Livest Prod Sci, 83(2-3): 211-218.
Campbell J. 2011. Pre-breeding vaccinations. Available from https://www.drovers.com/article/pre-breeding-vaccinations. Accessed in July 8th. 2019.
Carvalho LFR, Melo CB, Drummond VO. 2007. Procedures for the exportation and importation of genetic animal material to Brazil. [In Portuguese]. Rev Bras Reprod Anim, 31(3):415-422.
Chebel RC, Santos JEP, Reynolds JP, Cerri RL, Juchem SO, Overton M. 2004. Factors affecting conception rate after artificial insemination and pregnancy loss in lactating dairy cows. Anim Reprod Sci, 84(3-4): 239-255.
Committee on Reproductive Nomenclature Recommendations for standardizing bovine reproductive terms. 1972. Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine. 62:216-237.
Daly R. 2006. Timing of reproductive vaccinations in beef cattle herds. In: Proceedings of Applied Reproductive Strategies in Beef Cattle, 2006, Rapid City, South Dakota, USA. p.190-195.
Diskin MG, Morris DG. 2008. Embryonic and early foetal losses in cattle and other ruminants. Reprod Domest Anim, 43(2):260-267.
Dubovi EJ. 2013. Laboratory diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus. Biologicals, 41(1):8-13.
Dunne LD, Diskin MG, Sreenan JM. 2000. Embryo and foetal loss in beef heifers between day 14 of gestation and full term. Anim Reprod Sci, 58(1-2):39-44.
Ficken MD, Ellsworth MA, Tucker CM. 2006. Evaluation of the efficacy of a modified-live combination vaccine against abortion caused by virulent bovine herpesvirus type 1 in a one-year duration-of-immunity study. Vet Ther, 7(3):275-282.
Fischer G, Rodrigues R, Pappen FG, Zanela MB, Ribiero MER, Almeida LL, Souza GN, Weissheimer CF, Pegoraro LMC, Pradieé J. 2018. Principais doenças da bovinocultura leiteira. [In Portuguese]. In Pegoraro, LMC (Ed.). Biosecurity in dairy cattle. Pelotas, BR: Embrapa. pp. 13-27.
Forar AL, Gay JM, Hancock DD. 1995. The frequency of endemic fetal loss in dairy cattle: a review. Theriogenology, 43(6):989-1000.
García-Ispierto I, López-Gatius F, Santolaria P, Yániz JL, Nogareda C, López-Béjar M, De Rensis F. 2006. Relationship between heat stress during the peri-implantation period and early fetal loss in dairy cattle. Theriogenology, 65(4):799-807.
García-Ispierto I, López-Gatius, F, Bech-Sabat G, Santolaria P, Yániz JL, Nogareda C, De Rensis F, López-Béjar M. 2007a. Climate factors affecting conception rate of high producing dairy cows in northeastern Spain. Theriogenology, 67(8):1379-1385.
García-Ispierto I, López-Gatius F, Santolaria P, Yániz JL, Nogareda C, López-Béjar M. 2007b. Factors affecting the fertility of high producing dairy herds in northeastern Spain. Theriogenology, 67(3):632-638.
Gates MC, Humphry RW, Gunn GJ. 2013. Associations between bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) seropositivity and performance indicators in beef suckler and dairy herds. Vet J, 198(3):631-637.
Givens MD, Marley MS. 2008. Infectious causes of embryonic and fetal mortality. Theriogenology, 70(3):270-285.
Girardi A, Dufort I, Sirard MA. 2015. The effect of energy balance on the transcriptome of bovinegranulosa cells at 60 days postpartum. Theriogenology, 84:1350-1361.
Grooms DL. 2004. Reproductive consequences of infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract, 20(1):5-19.
Grooms DL. 2006. Reproductive losses caused by bovine viral diarrhea virus and leptospirosis. Theriogenology, 66(3):624-628.
Hamers C, Lecomte C, Kulcsar G, Lambot M, Pastoret PP. 1998. Persistently infected cattle stabilise bovine viral diarrhea virus leading to herd specific strains. Vet Microbiol, 61(3):177-82.
Hanzen C, Drion PV, Loutrie O, Depierreux C, Christians E. 1999. Embryonic mortality. Part 1. Clinical aspects and etiological factors on the bovine species. Ann Med Vet, 143(2):91-118.
Inskeep EK, Dailey RA. 2005. Embryonic death in cattle. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract, 21(2):437-641.
Jones C, Chowdhury S. 2007. A review of the biology of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1), its role as a cofactor in the bovine respiratory disease complex and development of improved vaccines. Anim Health Res Ver, 8(2):187-205.
Junqueira JRC, Alfieri AA. 2006. Reproductive failures in beef cattle breeding herds with emphasis for infectious causes [In Portuguese]. Semin Cienc Agr, 27(2):289-298.
Kumar A, Verma AK, Rahal A. 2011. Mycoplasma bovis, a multi disease producing pathogen: na overview. Asian J Anim Vet Adv, 6(6):537-546.
Lanyon SR, Hill FI, Reichel MP, Brownlie J. 2014. Bovine viral diarrhoea: pathogenesis and diagnosis. Vet J, 199(2):201-209.
Lonergan P, Fair T, Forde N, Rizos D. 2016. Embryo development in dairy cattle. Theriogenology, 86(1):270-277.
Médici KC, Alfieri AA, Alfieri AF. 2000. Prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against bovine herpesvirus type 1, due natural infection, in herds with reproductive problems [In Portuguese]. Cienc Rural, 30(2):347-350.
Michi AN, Favetto PH, Kastelic J, Cobo ER. 2016. A review of sexually transmitted bovine trichomoniasis and campylobacteriosis affecting cattle reproductive health. Theriogenology, 85(5):781-791.
Moennig V, Becher P. 2018. Control of Bovine Viral Diarrhea. Pathogens, 7(1). pii: E29.
Nandi S, Kumar M, Manohar M, Chauhan RS. 2009. Bovine herpes virus infections in cattle. Anim Health Res Ver,10(1):85-98
Newcomer BW, Walz PH, Givens MD, Wilson AE. 2015. Efficacy of bovine viral diarrhea virus vaccination to prevent reproductive disease: a meta-analysis. Theriogenology, 83(3):360-365.
Newcomer BW, Grady Cofield L, Walz PH, Givens MD. 2017. Prevention of abortion in cattle following vaccination against bovine herpesvirus 1: A meta-analysis. Prev Vet Med, 138:1-8.
Pegoraro LMC, Nunes e Souza G, Pradieé J, Weissheimer CF, Dereti RM, Viegas DP, Saalfed MH, Zanela MB, Almeida LL. 2018. Biosecurity measures - internal and external. [In Portuguese]. In Pegoraro, LMC (Ed.). Biosecurity in dairy cattle. Pelotas, BR: Embrapa. pp.28-41.
Pereira MH, Cooke RF, Alfieri AA, Vasconcelos JL. 2013. Effects of vaccination against reproductive diseases on reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows submitted to AI. Anim Reprod Sci, 37(3-4):156-162.
Pospísil Z, Krejcí J, Machatková M, Zendulková D, Lány P, Cíhal P. 1996. The efficacy of an inactivated IBR vaccine in the prevention of intra-uterine infection and its use in a disease-control programme. Zentralbl Veterinarmed B, 43(1):15-21.
Rani P, Dutt R, Singh G, Chandolia RK. 2018. Embryonic mortality in cattle – A review. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci, 7(7):1501-1516.
Ridpath JF. 2013. Immunology of BVDV vaccines. Biologicals, 41(1):14-9.
Rufino FA, Seneda MM, Alfieri AA. 2006. Bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine viral diarrhea virus impact in the embryo transfer [In Portuguese]. Arch Vet Sci, 11(1):78-84.
Sahlström L, Virtanen T, Kyyrö J, Lyytikäinen T. 2014. Biosecurity on Finnish cattle, pig and sheep farms - results from a questionnaire. Prev Vet Med, 117(1):59-67.
Sánchez JM, Mathew DJ, Passaro C, Fair T, Lonergan P. 2018. Embryonic maternal interaction in cattle and its relationship with fertility. Reprod Domest Anim, 53(2):20-27.
Sanhueza JM, Heuer C, West D. 2013. Contribution of Leptospira, Neospora caninum and bovine viral diarrhea virus to fetal loss of beef cattle in New Zealand. Prev Vet Med, 112(1-2):90-98.
Sarrazin S, Cay AB, Laureyns J, Dewulf J. 2014. A survey on biosecurity and management practices in selected Belgian cattle farms. Prev Vet Med, 117(1):129-139.
Sheldon IM and Owens. 2017. Postpartum uterine infection and endometritis in dairy cattle. In Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Scientific Meeting of the European Embryo Transfer Association (AETE), 2017, Bath, United Kingdom. Anim Reprod, 14(3):622-629.
Silke V, Diskin MG, Kenny DA, Boland MP, Dillon P, Mee JF, Sreenan JM. 2002. Extent, pattern and factors associated with lateembryonic loss in dairy cows. Anim Reprod Sci, 71(1-2):1-12.
Silva JR, Ferreira LF, Oliveira PV, Nunes IV, Pereira ÍS, Timenetsky J, Marques LM, Figueiredo TB, Silva RA. 2016. Intra-uterine experimental infection by Ureaplasma diversum induces TNF-α mediated womb inflammation in mice. An Acad Bras Cienc, 88(1):643-652.
Souza, GN; Pegoraro, LMC; Weissheimer, CF; Fischer, G; Dellagostin, O; Bialves, TS; Gindri, P; Lucas, RM; Muller, L; Cavalcanti, F; Weiller, OH. 2017. Situação epidemiológica e fatores de risco para problemas reprodutivos em bovinos leiteiros localizados em diferentes mesorregiões do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul 2016/2017. Embrapa Gado de Leite. Boletim de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento, 36. Juiz de Fora: Embrapa Gado de Leite, 2017. 22p.
Van Drunen Little-van den Hurk S. 2006. Rationale and perspectives on the success of vaccination against bovine herpesvirus-1. Vet Microbiol, 113(3-4):275-82.
Vanroose G, de Kruif A, Van Soom A. 2000. Embryonic mortality and embryo-pathogen interactions. Anim Reprod Sci, 60-61:131-43.
Vasconcelos, JLM, Carvalho R, Peres RFG, Rodrigues ADP, Junior IC, Meneghetti M, Aono FH, Costa WM, Lopes CN, Cooke RF, Pohler KG. 2017. Reproductive programs for beef cattle: incorporating management and reproductive techniques for better fertility. In Proceedings of the 31st Annual Meeting of the Brazilian Embryo Technology Society (SBTE); Cabo de Santo Agostinho, PE, Brazil, 2017, Anim Reprod, 14(3):547-557.
Walsh SW, Williams EJ, Evans AC. 2011. A review of the causes of poor fertility in high milk producing dairy cows. Anim Reprod Sci, 123(3-4):127-138.
Zimmerman AD, Buterbaugh RE, Herbert JM, Hass JM, Frank NE, Luempert Iii LG, Chase CC. 2007. Efficacy of bovine herpesvirus-1 inactivated vaccine against abortion and stillbirth in pregnant heifers. J Am Vet Med Assoc, 231(9):1386-9.